Friday, June 24, 2011

More Biblical Evidence for One Species In Holy Communion

By Dave Armstrong (6-24-11)

See my earlier paper, "Biblical Evidence for the Distribution of One Species in Holy Communion." Credit for these further examples, goes to Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman: see his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, (1845; revised 1878), Part I, ch. 4, sec. 1, sub-section 4.

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Eucharistic or Proto-Eucharistic Examples of "Bread" Only 

Matthew 14:19-21 (RSV) Then he ordered the crowds to sit down on the grass; and taking the five loaves and the two fish he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. [20] And they all ate and were satisfied. And they took up twelve baskets full of the broken pieces left over. [21] And those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. (cf. Mk 6:41-44; Lk 9:13-17)

Luke 24:30-31, 35 When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them. [31] And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished out of their sight.. . . [35] Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread. (cf. Acts 2:42; 20:7; 27:35)

John 6:11-12 Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated; so also the fish, as much as they wanted. [12] And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, "Gather up the fragments left over, that nothing may be lost."

John 6:27 Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to eternal life, which the Son of man will give to you; for on him has God the Father set his seal.

John 6:31-35 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, `He gave them bread from heaven to eat.'" [32] Jesus then said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven; my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. [33] For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world." [34] They said to him, "Lord, give us this bread always." [35] Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life; he who comes to me shall not hunger, and he who believes in me shall never thirst.

John 6:48-51 I am the bread of life. [49] Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. [50] This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that a man may eat of it and not die. [51] I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he will live for ever; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh."

John 6:57-58 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me. [58] This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live for ever."

[John 6 is very interesting in this regard, insofar as it gives examples of both flesh and blood being partaken of (6:53-56), yet only body / flesh is spoken of singularly and repeatedly as giving spiritual life, and Jesus never describes Himself as the "living wine" from heaven. Hence, the analogy directly holds to Catholic communion without both species, where consecrated hosts only are distributed. The full eucharistic doctrine comes together in 1 Corinthians 11:27, where Paul's careful use of "or" and "and" prove that the entire Jesus: Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity, as Catholics say, is contained in each species (see previous related paper above). In any event, both the biblical and Catholic models allow for distribution of both species, or one only (usually consecrated hosts)]

Eucharistic Types or Shadows: Examples of "Bread" or Flesh (Minus Blood) Only  

Exodus 25:30 And you shall set the bread of the Presence [KJV: "shewbread"] on the table before me always. (cf. 35:13; 39:36)

Leviticus 14:25 And he shall kill the lamb of the guilt offering; and the priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering, and put it on the tip of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot.

[the Jews separated the blood from meat to be eaten, and were forbidden to partake of blood: Gen 9:4; Lev 3:17; 7:26-27; 17:10-14; 19:26; . Therefore, the paschal lamb and bulls sacrificed : prototypes of Jesus' sacrifice on the cross, and of the Eucharist (since they were eaten and since the Last Supper, where the Holy Eucharist was instituted, was a Passover meal), were "meat only" with no blood]

Deuteronomy 8:3 And he humbled you and let you hunger and fed you with manna, which you did not know, nor did your fathers know; that he might make you know that man does not live by bread alone, but that man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the LORD. (cf. Num 11:7-9; Ps 78:24-29)

1 Samuel 21:6 So the priest gave him the holy bread; for there was no bread there but the bread of the Presence, which is removed from before the LORD, to be replaced by hot bread on the day it is taken away.

1 Kings 7:48 So Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of the LORD: the golden altar, the golden table for the bread of the Presence,

1 Chronicles 9:32 Also some of their kinsmen of the Ko'hathites had charge of the showbread, to prepare it every sabbath. (cf. 23:29; 28:16)

2 Chronicles 2:4 Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the LORD my God and dedicate it to him for the burning of incense of sweet spices before him, and for the continual offering of the showbread, and for burnt offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths and the new moons and the appointed feasts of the LORD our God, as ordained for ever for Israel. (cf. 4:19; 13:11; 29:18; Neh 10:33)

2 Chronicles 29:22 So they killed the bulls, and the priests received the blood and threw it against the altar; and they killed the rams and their blood was thrown against the altar; and they killed the lambs and their blood was thrown against the altar.

2 Chronicles 35:11 And they killed the passover lamb, and the priests sprinkled the blood which they received. . .

Matthew 12:3-4 He said to them, "Have you not read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him: [4] how he entered the house of God and ate the bread of the Presence, which it was not lawful for him to eat nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests? (cf. Mk 2:26; Lk 6:4)

John 1:29, 36 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! . . . and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God!"

1 Corinthians 5:7 Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed.

Hebrews 9:2-4 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, in which were the lampstand and the table and the bread of the Presence; it is called the Holy Place. [3] Behind the second curtain stood a tent called the Holy of Holies, [4] having the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, which contained a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant;

Revelation 2:17 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who conquers I will give some of the hidden manna,. . .

Revelation 5:6 And between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders, I saw a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain,. . . (cf. 5:8, 12-13; 6:1, 16; 7:9-10, 14, 17; 8:1; 12:11; 13:8, etc.)



Steven Buehler said...

I remember growing up in the Church only ever being served with the one species (the host) at Communion time, while only the priest ever had both species. It actually surprised me when I came back a few years ago that they served both species to everyone. Even in nearly every work on the Eucharist (including church "rules"), only one species is required.

Steven Buehler said...

Should add, I still to this day only take the host at communion and not the wine. (Still do it like I did as a kid, too--receive it into my hand, take one step to the side, and stand facing the altar/crucifix as I consume it, bless myself and go back to my seat) :-)

Reginald de Piperno said...

A serendipitous post.

The homily at my parish last night included an admonition (for those who don’t do this, like me) to receive the Cup, followed by a concession that it’s not required and then a repeat of the admonition.


Well, it’s either required or it’s not. If it is not required, then father has no business suggesting that it is better or more spiritual to do so.


Jordanes551 said...

The homily at my parish last night included an admonition (for those who don’t do this, like me) to receive the Cup, followed by a concession that it’s not required and then a repeat of the admonition.

So he admonishes and exhorts people to do something the Church says is optional. Did he also admonish everyone that if you haven't been to confession in a good while, you really should abstain from Communion rather than risk eating and drinking your own damnation?

Paul said...

Good post, thanks. This is something I've wondered about from time to time. Not in an anxious way, but just in a pastoral "which is better" kind of way.

Dave Armstrong said...

You're welcome.