See the introduction and links to all installments at the top of my John Calvin, Calvinism, and General Protestantism web page; also the online version of the Institutes. Calvin's words will be in blue throughout. All biblical citations (in my portions) will be from RSV unless otherwise noted.
OF THE POWER OF MAKING LAWS. THE CRUELTY OF THE POPE AND HIS ADHERENTS, IN THIS RESPECT, IN TYRANNICALLY OPPRESSING AND DESTROYING SOULS.
There are no "human inventions" from the Catholic Church "in this respect" so it is a non-issue. Calvin simply assumes without argument (as he so often does) that the Sacrifice of the Mass (firmly entrenched in apostolic and patristic tradition, as Calvin must have known if he knew Church history at all: as he surely did) is the equivalent of the sorts of false worship that God condemned in the Old Covenant. But he cites Scripture out of context.
He is trying to pit burnt-offerings and sacrifices against simple obedience to God, but that was not the point of Jeremiah 7:22-23 and 1 Samuel 15:22-23: which was, rather, that outward ritual is useless if it is not accompanied by inner piety and a right relationship to God, and obedience to Him at all costs. This is a very common theme in the Old Testament, and Catholics wholeheartedly agree with it. Our notions of inner disposition during worship and examination of conscience are two of the many ways in which the Catholic Church highly stresses inner spirituality in conjunction with ritual and liturgy.
Secondly, the passages in Jeremiah and 1 Samuel couldn't possibly have meant this in the sense of abolition of the OT sacrificial system of temple worship, because it continued even into the New Covenant, with Christians (including St. Paul) continuing to participate in it and to observe (as we have noted previously) all the Jewish feasts (e.g., Jn 4:45; 5:1; 7:1-2,11,37; 12:20), including Passover (Matthew 26:17-19; Mk 14:12-16; Lk 22:1-15; Jn 2:13,23). Jesus did so as well.
Therefore, there was a correct way to sacrifice in worship of God, which was not antithetical to the OT system, but rather, a continuation it. It was developed in the New Testament as the Sacrifice of the Mass: Jesus being the Lamb.
This is the one-time event at Calvary; not a repetition of killing Jesus over and over, as is often falsely believed by non-Catholics. As usual, Calvin illogically equates the corruption of a thing with the thing itself, and throws the baby out with the bathwater. This is his constant tendency, and could almost be said to be a leading hallmark of the so-called "Reformation" overall. To eliminate something under the guise of its corruption being the same as the thing corrupted is no reform; it is a revolution: i.e., the introduction of a new thing altogether (and moreover, a change based on fallacies and falsehoods at the level of premises).