Tuesday, April 18, 2006

Romantic and Imaginative Theology: Inklings of the World Beyond (Links Page by Dave Armstrong)

(NOTE: 325 new links added on 28 February 2006, all inactive links removed, and several new categories created)

A romantic theologian does not mean one who is romantic about theology but one who is theological about romance, one who considers the theological implications of those experiences which are called romantic.
-- C. S. Lewis --


Christian Fantasy, Folklore, Mythology, Imagination, and Romanticism

[Disclaimer: I emphatically do not endorse any pagan, occultic, Wiccan, New Age or other beliefs hostile to Christianity, which may appear on some of these sites unbeknownst to me. I am interested in mythology only insofar as it is consistent with a Lewis/Tolkien/George MacDonald sort of imaginative Christian Romanticism]

Now as myth transcends thought, Incarnation transcends myth. The heart of Christianity is a myth which is also a fact . . . To be truly Christian we must both assent to the historical fact and also receive the myth (fact though it has become) with the same imaginative embrace which we accord to all myths . . . For this is the marriage of heaven and earth: Perfect Myth and Perfect Fact: claiming not only our love and our obedience, but also our wonder and delight, addressed to the savage, the child, and the poet in each one of us no less than to the moralist, the scholar, and the philosopher.
-- C. S. Lewis --

C. S. Lewis on Joy, Sehnsucht, Longing and True Myth (Dave Brown)
C. S. Lewis and the Riddle of Joy (Michael Gleghorn)
Fantasia: The Gospel According to C.S. Lewis (Michael Nelson)
Myth Matters: C. S. Lewis bequeathed us a method and a language for sharing the gospel with the modern and postmodern world (Louis A. Markos)
C. S. Lewis on Myth, Truth, and Fact (Darol Klawetter)
The Childlike in George MacDonald and C. S. Lewis (Don King)
Apostle of the Imagination (Jeremy Halcrow)
Re-Enchanting the Cosmos: The Imaginative Legacy of C.S. Lewis (Angela R. Treadway)
Analysis of the contents of George MacDonald: An Anthology (Paul F. Ford)
Index for George MacDonald: An Anthology (Paul F. Ford)
C. S. Lewis and George MacDonald (Michael J Partridge)
Beyond the Shadowlands: C. S. Lewis on Heaven and Hell (book by Wayne Martindale)
Imagination and the Arts in C. S. Lewis: Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds (book by Peter J. Schakel)
Lord of the Elves and Eldils: Fantasy and Philosophy in C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien (book by Richard L. Purtill)

Fairy-tales are much more of a picture of the permanent life of the great mass of mankind than most realistic fiction.
-- G. K. Chesterton --

The Mythopoeic Society
Religion and the Romantic Movement (Christopher Dawson)
Christianity, Paganism and Literature (Steve Hayes)
International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts
Historical Imagination and the Renewal of Culture (Michael O'Brien)
Just a Fairy Story? (Michael O'Brien)
Victorian Fantasies (Terri Windling)
Victorian Fairy Paintings (Terri Windling)
Get A Myth: Inventing Stories To Live By (Charles Colson)
Germanic Myths, Legends, and Sagas
The Nibelungenlied
The Story of the Volsungs (Volsunga Saga)
"Thou hast arrived at: Robin Hood on the Web"
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
The Period of the French Revolution (The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, vol. 11)
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Romanticism
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand
The Samuel Taylor Coleridge Archive
Hopkins, Gerard Manley. 1918. Poems
Novalis Online
Coventry Patmore (1823-1896)
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Friedrich von Schlegel
William Wordsworth: Complete Poetical Works
The William Wordsworth Page
Bonastra - The Madeleine L'Engle WWW Resource
The Lewis Carroll Society
Lewis Carroll Home Page
Looking For Lewis Carroll



The religious element in Romanticism, whether Catholic or non-Catholic, goes much deeper than the superficial aesthetic appeal. It has its roots in the fundamental principles of the movement.
-- Christopher Dawson --
The Inklings and Other Friends and Influences on C.S. Lewis

Welcome to The Bird and Baby (website)
The C.S. Lewis and Inklings Society
The Inklings: The Other Oxford Movement (Walter Hooper)
Incredible Inklings (Andrew Ashcroft)
J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and Charles Williams
Inklings Wikipedia Entry
Introduction to the Inklings (Elesha Coffman)
A Beginner's Bibliography of the Inklings (David Bratman)
The Gallery: The Inklings (Jennifer Lynn Woodruff, Thomas Howard, and Edwin Tait)
Harry Potter and the Inklings: The Christian Meaning of The Chamber of Secrets (John Granger) (alt. URL)
"The Bird and Baby" (photo of the Oxford Pub where Lewis and the Inklings regularly met)
October 20, 1949: Last of the Inklings' Thursday Meetings (Christian History Institute)
The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and Friends (Book list and descriptions)
LIT 2XX: The Inklings: Tolkien, Lewis, and Williams (Felicia Jean Steele)
Seven: An Anglo-American Literary Review (devoted to C.S. Lewis, Chesterton, Tolkien, MacDonald, Williams, Barfield, Sayers)
The Mythopoeic Society
Review of Richard Sturch's Four Christian Fantasists: A study of the Fantastic Writings of George MacDonald, Charles Williams, C.S.Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien (Neil Mercer)
The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and their friends (book by Humphrey Carpenter)
Review of Humphrey Carpenter's Book, The Inklings (Jayme Lynn Blaschke)
The Inklings Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to the Lives, Thought and Writings of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield and Their Friends
(book by by Colin Duriez and David Porter)
The Magical World of the Inklings: J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield (book by Gareth Knight)
Shadows of Heaven: Religion and Fantasy in the Writing of C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and J. R. R. Tolkien (Religion and Other Disciplines) (book by Gunnar Urang)
Shadows of imagination;: The fantasies of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Charles Williams (Crosscurrents: modern critiques) (book by Mark Robert Hillegas)
Heterodox beliefs of Dom Bede Griffiths Criticized (Crossroad website)
Robert "Humphrey" Havard (Wikipedia)
Nevill Coghill (Wikipedia)
Roger Lancelyn Green (Wikipedia)
John Wain (Wikipedia)
Warren Lewis (Wikipedia)
The Marion E. Wade Center at Wheaton College (collection of Inklings books)
Christian Mythmakers: C.S. Lewis, Madeleine L'Engle, J.R.R. Tolkien, George Madonald, G.K. Chesterton, and Others (book by Rolland Hein)
Nature is not just something objective which exists outside us. Nature is speaking to us. It is a parable of life itself, a revelation of fearful symmetry.
-- Malcolm Muggeridge --




George MacDonald (1823-1905) (Leonie Caldecott)
George MacDonald: An Overview (Victorian Web)
Who is George MacDonald? (Michael Phillips, Richard Reis, and Mike Dalton)
George MacDonald (Wikipedia)
Short Biography (Scottish Authors)
Entry in Encyclopedia Britannica
George MacDonald: Fabled Victorian writer (Christianity Today)
Short Biography (Taylor University) (Part II)
Short Biography (Victor Shepherd)
Short Biography (BBC: Writing Scotland)
Short Biography (English Heritage)
Short Biography (The Literature Network)
Short Biography (Christian History Institute)
Short Biography
Short Biography (2)
Short Biography (3)
Life Outline / Timeline
George MacDonald Obituary (The Manchester Guardian, 20th September, 1905)
The fairy story may be made a vehicle of Mystery. That at least is what George MacDonald attempted, achieving stories of power and beauty when he succeeded.
-- J. R. R. Tolkien --

Quotations (Taylor University)
BrainyQuote: George MacDonald
Quotations (Bartleby)
Quotations (ThinkExist.com)
Quotations (compiled by Michael Phillips)


The Fantastic Imagination (essay by George MacDonald)
The Imagination: Its Function and its Culture (essay by George MacDonald)
George MacDonald (G. K. Chesterton)
Photographs of Important Landmarks in MacDonald's Life
George MacDonald's Theology(Michael J. Partridge)
The Childlike in George MacDonald and C. S. Lewis (Don King)
C.S. Lewis and George MacDonald (Michael J. Partridge)
George MacDonald and the Moral Imagination (Mike Schutt)
George MacDonald: Images of His World (book by Rolland Hein) (+ book review one | review two | review three | review four)
Pilgrims: The MacDonalds and John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress (Rachel Johnson)
Chthonic Aspects of Phantastes: From the Rising of the Goddess to the Anodos of Anodos (Fernando Soto)
Review: Rebecca Ankeny's, The Story, the Teller and the Audience in George MacDonald's Fiction
Beasts and Monsters in MacDonald's Fantasy Stories (Dieter Petzold)
Antigravity: Matter and the Imagination of George MacDonald's Early Science Fiction (Elmar Schenke)
A Check List of Biblical Allusions in Lilith (Tim Martin)
George MacDonald's Romantic Christianity in Lilith (Janet McCann)
The Spiritual Structure of Lilith: A paraphrase of the first draft by MacDonald's son Greville
Lilith Study Guide (Dale Nelson)
Phantastes (review by Matthew Scott Winslow)
Mark Twain and George MacDonald: The Salty and the Sweet (Kathryn Kindskoog)
Plan for the Curing: George MacDonald and Modern Child-Training Methods (Kathryn Kindskoog)
George MacDonald: The Grandfather of Modern Fantasy (Jeff Gardiner)
George MacDonald’s Faith in Historical Perspective (Michael Phillips)
George MacDonald's Friends and Literary Influences (Rolland Hein)
George MacDonald and the "Light Princess" (Bob Trexler)
An Orthodox Appreciation of George MacDonald (Robert W. Grano)
George MacDonald: Merging Myth and Method (Bob Trexler)
George MacDonald's Insights into Science and Religion (Mary Ellis Taylor)
George MacDonald and Novalis (Michael J. Partridge)
Description of a MacDonald Sermon (from one present)
Evangelical Criticism of Occultic Elements (Real or Perceived) in Lilith (Crossroad website)

George MacDonald is pre-eminently a mythopoeic writer . . . In his power . . . to project his inner life into images, beings, landscapes which are valid for all, he is one of the most remarkable writers of the nineteenth century.
Lilith is equal if not superior to the best of Poe.
-- W. H. Auden --
[see the Golden Key Macdonald web page collection of e-texts: the most comprehensive on the Internet] 

Phantastes, A Faerie Romance (alt. URL)
Lilith (499K)(alt. URL) (2nd alt. URL)
The Light Princess (alt. URL) (2nd alt. URL)
At the Back of the North Wind (alt. URL) (2nd alt. URL)
The Princess and the Goblin (alt. URL)
The Princess and Curdie (alt. URL)
The Golden Key
Hope of the Gospel (297K)
The Miracles of Our Lord (325K)
Unspoken Sermons Series One (244K)
Unspoken Sermons Second Series (364K)
Unspoken Sermons Third Series (302K)
Day Boy and the Night Girl (alt. URL)
Robert Falconer (alt. URL)
Sir Gibbie (alt. URL)
David Elginbrod (alt. URL)
Donal Grant (alt. URL)
Home Again (297K)
The Elect Lady (344K)
The Wise Woman (188K) (alt. URL)
The History of Gutta-Percha-Willie, The Working Genius (262K) (alt. URL)
Adela Cathcart Volume One (295K)
Adela Cathcart Volume Two (296K)
Adela Cathcart Volume Three (373K)
The Portent (230K) (alt. URL)
The Cruel Painter (77K) (alt. URL)
The Castle (44K) (alt. URL)
The Wow O' Riven aka The Bell (55K)
The Broken Swords (66K) (alt. URL) (33 Reviews)
The Gray Wolf (33K) (alt. URL)
Uncle Cornelius His Story (66K)
Heather and Snow (402K) (alt. URL)
Far Above Rubies (126K) (alt. URL)
A Book of Strife in the Form of The Diary of an Old Soul
The Carasoyn
A Dish of Orts
A Double Story
The Flight of the Shadow
Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood
Half-Hours with Great Story Tellers
The Marquis of Lossie
Mary Marston
The Poetical Works of George MacDonald (Volume I)
The Poetical Works of George MacDonald (Volume II)
Rampolli (without A Year's Diary of An Old Soul)
Ranald Bannerman's Boyhood
A Rough Shaking
Salted With Fire
The Seaboard Parish
St. George and St. Michael
Stephen Archer, and Other Tales
There and Back
Thomas Wingfold, Curate
The Vicar's Daughter
Warlock o' Glenwarlock: A Homely Romance
Weighed and Wanting
What's Mine's Mine
Wilfrid Cumbermede
Novalis - Hymns to the Night (Translated by George MacDonald)


Lilith (33 Reviews)
The Complete Fairy Tales (Penguin Classics) (6 Reviews)
Phantastes (29 Reviews)
The Princess and the Goblin (31 Reviews)
At the Back of the North Wind (12 Reviews)
The Light Princess (9 Reviews)
Diary of an Old Soul: 366 Writings for Devotional Reflection (4 Reviews)
Knowing the Heart of God (6 Reviews)
George MacDonald (by C.S. Lewis) (15 Reviews)


A Historical 19th Century Bibliography of His Published Works (description of all books authored in his lifetime, by Michael Phillips)
Works and Dates
Analysis of the contents of George MacDonald: An Anthology (Paul F. Ford - book by C.S. Lewis)
Index for George MacDonald: An Anthology (Paul F. Ford - book by C.S. Lewis)
Summary of George MacDonald Books
George MacDonald Books for Purchase
Bookstore (Golden Key website; with descriptions)
Study Notes for The Carasoyn (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for The Day Boy and the Night Girl (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for The Fantastic Imagination (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for The Grey Wolf (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for The Light Princess (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for The Golden Key (Dale J. Nelson)
The Harmony Within: The Spiritual Vision of George MacDonald (book by Rolland Hein)
George MacDonald - Victorian Mythmaker (book by Rolland Hein)
George MacDonald: Scotland's Beloved Storyteller (book by Michael R. Phillips)
George MacDonald in the Pulpit (book edited by J. Joseph Flynn and David Edwards)
Essays on C.S. Lewis and George MacDonald (book by Cynthia Marshall)
George MacDonald, Selections from His Greatest Works (book edited by David Neuhouser)
George MacDonald (book by D. S. Robb)
George MacDonald - a Bibliographical Study (book by Raphael B. Shaberman)
The Stars and the Stillness - a Portrait of George MacDonald (book by Kathy Triggs)
3000 Quotations of George MacDonald (book compiled by Harry Verploggh)
47 MacDonald Books on one CD, for purchase
MP3 audio files for Unspoken Sermons
Hyper-Concordance to the Works of George MacDonald
It is not difficult to imagine the peculiar excitment and joy that one would feel, if any specially beautiful fairy-story were found to be 'primarily' true, its narrative to be history, without thereby necessarily losing the mythical or allegorical significance that it had possessed . . . God is the Lord of angels, and of men -- and of elves. Legend and History have met and fused . . . The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them, especially the 'happy ending'.
-- J. R. R. Tolkien --

Finding Frodo's Faith (Joseph Pearce)
J.R.R. Tolkien's Take on the Truth (Interview with Author Joseph Pearce on "Lord of the Rings")
J. R. R. Tolkien: Myth and Middle-Earth (Rolland Hein)
Tolkien: The Man behind the Myth (Mary Lasse)
Where to Go for all Things Tolkien (The best sites on the Internet about the man, his faith, his books, the Inklings and the movies; by Rob Moll)
Wikipedia Entry
A Catholic Poem in Time of War: The Lord of the Rings (Ken Craven)
The book of the century (Andrew O'Hehir)
Christianity and Middle-Earth
Heeding Tolkien's Words (Terry Mattingly)
J.R.R. Tolkien: Lord of the Imagination (The Irish Family)
The Fellowship of the Ring (Steven Greydanus)
Faith and Fantasy: Tolkien the Catholic, The Lord of the Rings, and Peter Jackson’s Film Trilogy (Steven D. Greydanus)
Lord of the Rings: True Mythology(Leadership University)
National Geographic: Beyond the Movie: Lord of the Rings
Mara and Galadriel: MacDonald’s and Tolkien’s Vehicles for Spiritual Truth (Betsy Matthews)
God, man, hobbits and Tolkien (Terry Mattingly)
Remembering J.R.R. Tolkien (Theresa Carson)
Tolkien's Impact in Literature and Life (Patrick W. Curles)
Is Tolkien Actually Any Good? (Andrew Rilstone)
Tolkien and the Gift of Mortality (Anna Mathie)
Tolkien's Cosmogony (Ralph C. Wood)
Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Book for Our Time of Terror (Ralph Wood)
Tolkien's Lord of the Rings: A Christian Classic Revisited (Ralph Wood)
J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973) (Ralph Wood)
Review of John Garth's book, Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-earth (Liz Milner)
Tolkien, Wagner, Nationalism, and Modernity (Bradley J. Birzer)
The Lord of The Rings: A Myth Translated to Film (Melissa McHenry)
The Battle of the Books - No contest. Tolkien runs rings around Potter (Brian M. Carney)
The Mythology of J.R.R. Tolkien: A Spiritual Analysis of Tolkien's Fiction (Greg Wright)
Lord of the Elves and Eldils: Fantasy and Philosophy in C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien (book by Richard L. Purtill)
Gazing Upon Everlasting Day
Taruithorn, The Oxford Tolkien Society
The Tolkien Society
The Grey Havens - The Ultimate J.R.R. Tolkien Resource Web Page
A Tribute to J.R.R. Tolkien
The World of J.R.R. Tolkien
JRR Tolkien Biography
The Halls of Tolkien
The HoBBiT Site
One Ring: The Complete Guide to Tolkien Online
The J.R.R. Tolkien Page
Tolkien Encyclopedia: Interactive Edition
Tolkien's Haven
Steuard's Tolkien Pages
A Chronological Bibliography of the Writings of J.R.R. Tolkien
The World of JRR Tolkien
Tolkien's Grave (Photo)
The Lord of the Rings and Philosophy: One Book to Rule Them All (book edited by Gregory Bassham and Eric Bronson)
Study Notes for The Silmarillion (Dale J. Nelson)
Study Notes for On Fairy Stories (Dale J. Nelson)
Lewis and Tolkien, faith and friendship (Chicago Sun-Times)
Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship (book by Colin Duriez)

In poetry the words are the body and the 'theme' or 'content' is the soul. But in myth the imagined events are the body and something inexpressible is the soul.
-- C. S. Lewis --




War in Heaven [1930] (amazon.com; book info and 19 reviews)
The Place of the Lion [1931] (amazon.com; book info and 7 reviews)
Many Dimensions [1931] (amazon.com; book info and 6 reviews) [online book]
The Greater Trumps[1932] (amazon.com; book info and 4 reviews)
Shadows of Ecstasy [1933] (amazon.com; book info and 3 reviews)
Descent into Hell [1937] (amazon.com; book info and 20 reviews) [online book]
He Came Down From Heaven [1938] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
Taliessin through Logres [poems: 1938] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
The Descent of the Dove [1939] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
The Forgiveness of Sins [1942] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
The Figure of Beatrice [1944] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
The Region of the Summer Stars [poems: 1944] (amazon.com; book info and reviews)
All Hallows' Eve [1945] (amazon.com; book info and 10 reviews) [online book]
A Charles Williams Reader (on amazon.com; book info and reviews)
Charles Williams: Essential Writings in Spirituality and Theology [1993] (amazon.com; book info and reviews; edited by Charles Hefling)


The Novels of Charles Williams (Thomas Howard)
Charles Williams, Poet of Theology (Glen Cavaliero)
Charles Williams (Contemporary writers in Christian perspective) (Mary McDermott Shideler)
Steps Toward Salvation: An Examination of Co-Inherence and Substitution in the Seven Novels of Charles Williams (American University Studies Series IV, English Language and Literature) (Dennis L. Weeks)
Charles Williams: An Exploration of His Life and Work (Alice Mary Hadfield)
An immortality for its own sake: A study of the concept of poetry in the writings of Charles Williams (John P Gigrich)
The theology of romantic love: A study of the writings of Charles Williams (Mary McDermott Shideler)
The Pattern in the Web: The Mythical Poetry of Charles Williams (Roma Alvah, Jr. King)
The Magical World of Charles Williams (Gareth Knight)
Charles Williams: A Celebration (edited by by Brian Horne)

On Owen Barfield(Roger S. Jones)
Not Least of the Inklings (Jared C. Lobdell)
Legacy of the Second Friend [Barfield and Lewis] (Dale Nelson)
History in English Words (book by Owen Barfield)
Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning (book by Owen Barfield)
Orpheus: A Poetic Drama (book by Owen Barfield)
The Silver Trumpet (book by Owen Barfield)

I do not think the resemblance between the Christian and the merely imaginative experience is accidental. I think that all things, in their way, reflect heavenly truth, the imagination not least.
-- C. S. Lewis --

 The Harry Potter Controversy

The Hidden Key to Harry Potter (book by John Granger / amazon.com page)
Finding God in Harry Potter (book by John Granger / amazon.com page)
Looking for God in Harry Potter (book by John Granger)
What's a Christian To Do With Harry Potter? (book by Connie Neal / amazon.com page)
The Gospel According to Harry Potter (book by Connie Neal / amazon.com page)
A Parent's Guide to Harry Potter (book by Gina Burkart / amazon.com page)
Harry Potter and Philosophy: If Aristotle Ran Hogwarts (book by David Baggett, Shawn Klein, William Irwin)
Why We Like Harry Potter (Christianity Today)
Deconstructing Rowling (David Kopel / National Review)
Harry Potter’s Magic (Alan Jacobs / First Things)
The Secrets of Harry Potter (podcast / audio files by Fr. Roderick Vonhögen)

The war for our children's souls (Michael D. O'Brien)
Pope Benedict and Harry Potter (Michael D. O'Brien)
Harry vs. Frodo (Michael D. O'Brien)
Parental Concerns and Questions about Harry Potter (Michael O'Brien, Vivian Dudro and Fr. Philip Scott: audio CD for sale)
Harry Potter, Narnia, and The Lord of the Rings (book by Richard Abanes / amazon.com page)
A Wave of Harry's Wand Stirs Backlash (book by Gabriele Kuby: Harry Potter - Good or Evil?)
Harrycane: a sign of the times (Fr. Lazare de la Mere de Dieu, F.J.)
Is "Harry Potter" Harmless? (ChristianAnswers.Net)
There's Something About Harry:A Catholic Analysis of the Harry Potter Phenomenon (Patrick Madrid, Michael O'Brien, Toni Colins: audio talk for sale)

Harry Potter: Pro and Con (Catholic Insight)
Harry Potter: Agent of Conversion (Toni Collins / Envoy)
Musings On Harry Potter (Gregory Koukl)
Harry Potter and Christians (Reachout Trust)
The Problem of Harry Potter (LifeSiteNews.com)
The Split Verdict on Harry Potter (Mindy Sink / New York Times)

Thorough URL Revision (including 325 new links): 28 February 2006.

Updated: 30 November 2010.