Wednesday, September 28, 2005

The Holy Trinity: Biblical Proofs

(KJV unless indicated otherwise)

*****originally written in 1982; revised only slightly subsequently*****

C O N T E N T S

I. FORTY DESCRIPTIONS APPLIED BOTH TO GOD/YHWH AND JESUS
II. GOD/YHWH, THE MESSIAH, AND JESUS: PARALLEL PASSAGES
III. THE UNITY OF GOD AND MONOTHEISM
IV. THE HOLY SPIRIT AND/OR TRINITARIANISM
V. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS A PERSON: FORTY PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES
VI. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS GOD: DIRECT BIBLICAL EVIDENCE
VII. 13 DESCRIPTIONS APPLIED TO ALL THREE IN THE TRINITY
VIII. GOD'S APPEARANCES AS A MAN IN THE O.T. (THEOPHANIES)
IX. JESUS IS THE IMAGE OF THE INVISIBLE FATHER
X. A DEFINITION OF THE TRINITY: THE ATHANASIAN CREED


I. FORTY DESCRIPTIONS APPLIED BOTH TO GOD/YHWH AND JESUS

{ * = God/YHWH (God the Father) / + = Jesus (God the Son) }

1) Name of God: "I AM"

*EXODUS 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

*DEUTERONOMY 32:39 See now that I, {even} I, {am} he, and {there is} no god with me . . . {cf. Is 41:4, 43:10-13, 48:12}

+JOHN 8:24 . . . if ye believe not that I am {he}, ye shall die in your sins.

+JOHN 8:28 Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am {he}, and {that} I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things. {cf. 8:58, 13:19}

2) Raises the Dead and Gives Life

*DEUTERONOMY 32:39 . . . I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: . . .

*1 SAMUEL 2:6 The Lord killeth, and maketh alive: he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up. {cf. Rom 4:17}

+JOHN 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth {them}; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.

+JOHN 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any {man} pluck them out of my hand. {cf. Jn 1:4, 1 Jn 5:11}

3) "Good Shepherd"

*EZEKIEL 34:11-12,15,22,31 For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I, {even} I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out. (12) As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep {that are} scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day . . . (15) I will feed my flock, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord God . . . (22) Therefore will I save my flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle . . . (31) And ye my flock, the flock of my pasture, {are} men, {and} I {am} your God, saith the Lord God. {cf. Ps 23:1, 80:1, 100:3, Is 40:11, Jer 23:1, 31:10}

+JOHN 10:7,11,14-16,26-29 Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep . . . (11) I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep . . . (14) I am the good shepherd, and know my {sheep}, and am known of mine. (15) As the Father knoweth me, even so I know the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. (16) And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, {and} one shepherd . . . (26) But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you. (27) My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: (28) And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any {man} pluck them out of my hand. (29) My Father, which gave {them} me, is greater than all; and no {man} is able to pluck {them} out of my Father's hand. {cf. Ezek 34:23, Mic 5:4, Zech 13:7 w/Mt 26:31, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 5:4, Rev 7:17}

4) Author of Eternal Words

*ISAIAH 40:8 . . . the word of our God shall stand for ever.

+MATTHEW 24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

5) Worshiped and Praised by Angels

*PSALM 148:1-2 Praise ye the Lord. Praise ye the Lord from the heavens: praise him in the heights. (2) Praise ye him, all his angels : praise ye him, all his hosts.

+HEBREWS 1:6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

6) "Bridegroom"

*ISAIAH 62:5 For {as} a young man marrieth a virgin, {so} shall thy sons marry thee: and {as} the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, {so} shall thy God rejoice over thee. {cf. Is 54:5-6, Hos 2:16-20}

+REVELATION 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. {cf. Mt 24:44, 25:1,6,13, Jn 3:29, Rev 21:9}
7) "Glory" of God

*ISAIAH 42:8 I {am} the Lord: that {is} my name: and my glory will I not give to another, . . . {cf. 48:11}

+JOHN 17:5 . . . Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.

+HEBREWS 1:3 Who being the brightness of {his} glory, . . . {cf. Mt 25:31, Lk 2:32, Jn 1:14, 16:14, 17:1, 1 Cor 2:8}

8) Seeker of the Lost

*EZEKIEL 34:16 I will seek that which was lost, and bring again that which was driven away, . . .
+LUKE 19:10 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.

9) "Lord of Lords"

*DEUTERONOMY 10:17 For the Lord your God {is} God of Gods, and Lord of Lords, a great God, . . . {cf. Ps 136:2-3, 1 Tim 6:15}

+REVELATION 17:14 . . . the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: . . .{cf. Rev 19:16}

10) "Lord of Glory"

*PSALM 24:10 Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he {is} the King of glory. Selah.

+1CORINTHIANS 2:8 . . . had they known {it}, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

11) "Above All"

*EPHESIANS 4:6 One God and Father of all, who {is} above all, and through all, and in you all. {cf. Ps 97:9}

+JOHN 3:31 He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.

12) "All in All"

*1 CORINTHIANS 15:28 . . . that God may be all in all.

+COLOSSIANS 3:11 . . . but Christ {is} all, and in all.

13) "Over All"

*PSALM 83:18 . . . Jehovah, {art} the most high over all the earth.

+ROMANS 9:5 . . . Christ . . . , who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

14) "Light"

*1 JOHN 1:5 . . . God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. {cf. Ps 27:1, 1 Tim 6 16}

+JOH 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. {cf. 1:9}

15) "Holy One"

*ISAIAH 48:17 Thus saith the Lord, thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; . . . {cf. 10:20, 43:3, 1 Sam 2:2, Ps 89:18}

+ACTS 3:13-14 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; . . . (14) But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, . . . {cf. Acts 2:27 w/ Ps 16:10, Is 49:7}

16) Redeemer

*ISAIAH 43:14 Thus saith the Lord, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; . . . {cf. 41:14, 44:6,24, 47:4, 48:17, 54:8}

+TITUS 2:14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, . . . {cf. Rom 3:24, Gal 3:13, 4:5, Eph 1:7, Titus 2:14, Heb 9:12, Rev 5:9}

17) Illuminating Light

*REVELATION 22:5 And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: . . . {cf. Is 60:19}

+REVELATION 21:23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb {is} the light thereof.

18) "First and Last"

*ISAIAH 44:6 Thus saith the Lord the King of Israel, and his redeemer the Lord of hosts; I {am} the first, and I {am} the last; and beside me {there is} no God.

*REVELATION 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

*REVELATION 21:6-7 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end . . . (7) He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son. {cf. Is 41:4, 48:12}

+REVELATION 1:17-18 . . . Fear not; I am the first and the last: (18) I {am} he that liveth, and was dead; . . .

+REVELATION 2:8 . . . These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

+REVELATION 22:13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. {identified as Jesus in 22:16}

19) Satisfier of the Thirsty

*REVELATION 21:6 . . . I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.

+JOHN 4:14 But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. {cf. 6:35, 7:37, Rev 22:17}

20) All-Powerful "Hand"

*DEUTERONOMY 32:39 . . . neither {is there any} that can deliver out of my hand. {cf. Jn 10:29}

+JOHN 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any {man} pluck them out of my hand.

21) Sound of Voice

*EZEKIEL 43:2 And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: and his voice {was} like a noise of many waters: and the earth shined with his glory.

+REVELATION 1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

22) "Horn of Salvation"

*2 SAMUEL 22:3 The God of my rock; . . . He is my shield, and the {Horn Of} my salvation, . . . {cf. Ps 18:2}

+LUKE 1:68-69 Blessed {be} the Lord God of Israel; for he . . . (69) . . . hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David;

23) Divine Discipline

*PROVERBS 3:12 For whom the Lord loveth he correcteth; even as a father the son {in whom} he delighteth.

+REVELATION 3:19 As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent.
24) Appearance of God

*EZEKIEL 1:26-28 And above the firmament that {was} over their heads {was} the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne {was} the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. (27) And I saw as the colour of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about. (28) As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so {was} the appearance of the brightness round about. This {was} the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. And when I saw {it}, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.

*DANIEL 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the ancient of days did sit, whose garment {was} white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne {was like} the fiery flame, {and} his wheels {as} burning fire.

+REVELATION 1:13-16 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks {one} like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. (14) His head and {his} hairs {were} white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes {were} as a flame of fire; (15) And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters. (16) And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance {was} as the sun shineth in his strength.

+REVELATION 2:18 . . . Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet {are} like fine brass;

25) Destroyer of Death

*ISAIAH 25:8 He will swallow up death in victory; . . .

+2 TIMOTHY 1:10 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light . . .

26) "Render According to Deeds"

*PSALM 62:12 . . . unto thee, O Lord, {belongeth} mercy: for thou renderest to every man according to his work. {cf. Is 40:10}

+MATTHEW 16:27 For the Son of man shall . . . reward every man according to his works.

+REVELATION 22:12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward {is} with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.

27) Separator of Sheep and Goats

*EZEKIEL 34:17 . . . Behold, I judge between cattle and cattle, between the rams and the he goats.

+MATTHEW 25:32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth {his} sheep from the goats:

28) Receiver of Glory

*GALATIANS 1:4-5 . . . according to the will of God and our Father: (5) To whom {be} glory for ever and ever. Amen.

+2 PETER 3:18 . . . our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him {be} glory both now and for ever. Amen. {cf. Heb 13:21}

29) Possessor of the Kingdom

*JOHN 3:5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and {of} the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. {cf. Mt 21;31, Lk 7:28, Acts 1:3, Rom 14:17, 1 Cor 4:20, 15:50, Col 4:11, Rev 12:10}

+COLOSSIANS 1:13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated {us} into the kingdom of his dear Son: {cf. Jn 18:36, Eph 5:5, 2 Tim 4:1, Heb 1:8, 2 Pet 1:1}

30) "For Whom Are All Things"

*ROMANS 11:36 For of him, and through him, and to him, {are} all things: to whom {be} glory for ever. Amen.

*HEBREWS 2:10 For it became him, for whom {are} all things, and by whom {are} all things, . . .
+COLOSSIANS 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether {they be} thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: {cf. Mt 11:27, Jn 3:35, 13:3, Phil 3:21}

31) Lawgiver

*ROMANS 7:22 . . . the law of God . . . {cf. Ps 19:7}

+GALATIANS 6:2 . . . fulfil the law of Christ.

32) "The Spirit of . . ."

*ROMANS 8:9 . . . the Spirit of God . . .

+ROMANS 8:9 . . . the Spirit of Christ, .. . {cf. Phil 1:19}

+GALATIANS 4:6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, . . .

33) Our Hope

*PSALM 71:5 For thou {art} my hope, O Lord God: . . .

+1 TIMOTHY 1:1 . . . Lord Jesus Christ, {which is} our hope; {cf. Col 1:27}

34) Granter of Grace For Salvation

*TITUS 2:11 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,

+ACTS 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

35) Head of the Angels

*JOHN 1:51 . . . the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. {Lk 12:8-9, Heb 1:6}

+2 THESSALONIANS 1:7 . . . the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, {cf. Mt 16:27}

36) "His Saints"

*COLOSSIANS 1:26-27 {Even} the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints: (27) To whom God would make known . . .

+1 THESSALONIANS 3:13 . . . at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints.

37) Sender of Angels

*REVELATION 22:6 . . . the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel . . .

+REVELATION 22:16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches . . .

38) "The Gospel of . . ."

*ROMANS 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called {to be} an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God, {cf. Mk 1:14, Rom 15:16, 1 Thess 2:2,8-9, 1 Pet 4:17}

+ROMANS 15:19 . . . I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. {cf. Rom 1:16, 1 Cor 9:12, 2 Cor 2:12, 1 Thess 3:2}

39) "Church of . . ."

*1 CORINTHIANS 15:9 . . . I persecuted the church of God. {cf. 1 Cor 11:22, Gal 1:13}

+MATTHEW 16:18 . . . thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; . . .

+ROMANS 16:16 . . . The churches of Christ salute you.

40) "Servants of . . ."

*TITUS 1:1 Paul, a servant of God, . . . {cf. Rom 12:11, Lk 4:8- ". . . him only shalt thou serve"}

+ROMANS 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, . . . {cf. Eph 6:6, Col 3:24; servants of both: Jas 1:1, Rev 7:3, 11:18, 19:5}

II. GOD/YHWH, THE MESSIAH, AND JESUS: PARALLEL PASSAGES

{ * = God/YHWH (God the Father) / # = The O.T. Messiah / + = Jesus (God the Son, the Son of God, the Son of Man, the Messiah, the Christ, the Saviour, the Redeemer, the Lamb) }

A. The Saviour

1) *ISAIAH 43:3 For I {am} the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: . . .

2) *ISAIAH 43:11 I, {even} I, {am} the Lord; and beside me {there is} no saviour.

3) *ISAIAH 49:26 . . . I the Lord {am} thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

4) *HOSEA 13:4 Yet I {am} the Lord thy God . . . {there is} no saviour beside me. {cf. Ps 106:21, Is 45:21-22, 60:16, 63:8}

5) *LUKE 1:47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.

6) *1 TIMOTHY 4:10 . . . the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe. {cf. 1 Tim 1:1, 2:3, 2 Tim 1:9, Titus 1:3, 2:10, 3:4, Jude 1:25}

1) #ISAIAH 49:5-6 And now, saith the Lord that formed me from the womb {to be} his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, . . . (6) And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.

2) #ISAIAH 53:1,4-6,10-12 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? . . . (4) Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. (5) But he {was} wounded for our transgressions, {he was} bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace {was} upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. (6) All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all . . . (10) Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put {him} to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see {his} seed, he shall prolong {his} days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. (11) He shall see of the travail of his soul, {and} shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. (12) Therefore will I divide him {a portion} with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. {cf. Is 52:10, 59:16, 63:5, Zech 9:9}

1) +LUKE 2:11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

2) +JOHN 5:24 . . . He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.

3) +JOHN 10:9 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture.

4) +ACTS 5:31 Him hath God exalted with his right hand {to be} a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.

5) +TITUS 2:13 . . . great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;

6) +2 PETER 1:1 . . . God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:

7) +1 JOHN 4:14 And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son {to be} the Saviour of the world.

{cf. Jn 1:29, 3:16-17,36, 4:42, 5:34,40, 6:40, 8:12,51, 11:25-26, 14:6, Acts 4:10-12, Rom 6:23, Phil 3:20, 1 Thess 5:9, 2 Tim 1:10, Titus 1:4, 3:6, 2 Pet 1:11, 2:20, 3:18, 1 Jn 4:9-10, 5:11-12, Rev 7:10, 19:1}

B. Worshiped

1) *ISAIAH 45:23 . . . unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. {cf. 66:23}

2) *DANIEL 7:27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom {is} an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him. {cf. Dan 4:34, Rev 4:9-11}

3) *REVELATION 1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him {be} glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

1) #PSALM 2:12 Kiss the son, lest he be angry, and ye perish {from} the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed {are} all they that put their trust in him.

2) #DANIEL 7:13-14 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, {one} like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. (14) And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion {is} an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom {that} which shall not be destroyed.

3) #ISAIAH 52:13 Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high.

1) +EPHESIANS 1:20-22 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set {him} at his own right hand in the heavenly {places}, (21) Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: (22) And hath put all {things} under his feet, and gave him {to be} the head over all {things} to the church,

2) +PHILIPPIANS 2:9-11 Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: (10) That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of {things} in heaven, and {things} in earth, and {things} under the earth; (11) And {that} every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ {is} Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

{cf. Rev 5:12-14 - IV., 6,}

C. Second Coming

1) *ISAIAH 35:4 . . . behold, your God will come {with} vengeance, {even} God {with} a recompence; he will come and save you.

2) *ISAIAH 40:5 And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see {it} together: . . .

3) *ISAIAH 40:10 Behold, the Lord God will come with strong {hand}, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward {is} with him, and his work before him.

4) *ISAIAH 59:19-20 So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him. (20) And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, . . .

5) *ISAIAH 66:15 For, behold, the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.

6) *JOEL 2:4-5 The appearance of them {is} as the appearance of horses; and as horsemen, so shall they run. (5) Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array.

7) *JOEL 2:10-11 The earth shall quake before them; the heavens shall tremble: the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining: (11) And the Lord shall utter his voice before his army: for his camp {is} very great: for {he is} strong that executeth his word: for the day of the Lord {is} great and very terrible; and who can abide it?

8) *ZECHARIAH 2:10 Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord.

9) *ZECHARIAH 9:14 And the Lord shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning: and the Lord God shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south.

10) *ZECHARIAH 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for {his} only {son}, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for {his} firstborn.

11) *ZECHARIAH 14:3-5 Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. (4) And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which {is} before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, {and there shall be} a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south. (5) And ye shall flee {to} the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the Lord my God shall come, {and} all the saints with thee.

12) *REVELATION 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. {cf. Ps 110:3, Is 30:20}

1) #ISAIAH 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth: with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.

2) #DANIEL 7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, {one} like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, . . .

1) +MATTHEW 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.

2) +MATTHEW 24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. {cf. Zech 12:10}

3) +MATTHEW 26:64 . . . Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. {cf. Mk 14:62}

4) +ACTS 1:9-12 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. (10) And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; (11) Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. (12) Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey. {cf. 1:12 with Zech 14:4}

5) +2 THESSALONIANS 1:7-8 . . . the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, (8) In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:

6) +REVELATION 1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they {also} which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen. {cf. Zech 12:10}

7) +REVELATION 19:11,13-16,19,21 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him {was} called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war . . . (13) And he {was} clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. (14) And the armies {which were} in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. (15) And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. (16) And he hath on {his} vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS . . . (19) And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army . . . (21) And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which {sword} proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.

8) +REVELATION 22:12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward {is} with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.

D. Judge

1) *PSALM 50:6 And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is {judge} himself. Selah.

2) *PSALM 96:13 Before the Lord: for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth.

3) *ECCLESIASTES 12:14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether {it be} good or whether {it be} evil.

4) *ISAIAH 40:10 Behold, the Lord God will come with strong {hand}, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward {is} with him, and his work before him.

5) *JOEL 3:12-13 Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about. (13) Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness {is} great. {cf. 2:11}

6) *ZEPHANIAH 1:14-15 The great day of the Lord {is} near, {it is} near, and hasteth greatly, {even} the voice of the day of the Lord: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly. (15) That day {is} a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness,

{cf. Gen 18:25, 1 Sam 2:10, Ps 9:7-8, 62:12, Ecc 3:17, Is 2:4, 24:21, 26:21, 33:22, 34:2, 35:4, 66:15-16, Ezek 7:19}

1) #PSALM 2:9,12 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel . . . (12) Kiss the son, lest he be angry, and ye perish {from} the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed {are} all they that put their trust in him.

2) #PSALM 110:1-2,5-6 The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. (2) The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies . . . (5) The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. (6) He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill {the places} with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries. {cf. Mt 26:64}

3) #MICAH 5:1 Now gather thyself in troops, O daughter of troops: he hath laid siege against us: they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek.

4) #ISAIAH 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth: with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. {see 11:1-3, Job 4:9, Hos 6:5, 2 Thess 2:8}

5) #ISAIAH 49:2 And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a Polished shaft; in his quiver hath he hid me;

1) +JOHN 5:22,27 For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son . . . (27) And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.

2) +JOHN 9:39 And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind.

3) +ACTS 10:42 . . . it is he which was ordained of God {to be} the Judge of quick and dead.

4) +2 TIMOTHY 4:1 I charge {thee} therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

5) +REVELATION 6:16-17 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: (17) For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

6) +REVELATION 14:14-16 And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud {one} sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. (15) And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe. (16) And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped.

7) +REVELATION 19:11,15 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him {was} called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war . . . (15) And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

{cf. Mt 3:10-12, 16:27, 25:31-33,41, Acts 17:31, Rev 17:14, 22:12}

E. King

1) *PSALM 24:10 Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he {is} the King of glory. Selah.

2) *ISAIAH 24:23 Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.

3) *ISAIAH 33:17,22 Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off . . . (22) For the Lord {is} our judge, the Lord {is} our lawgiver, the Lord {is} our king; he will save us.

4) *EZEKIEL 20:33,40 {As} I live, saith the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with fury poured out, will I rule over you . . . (40) For in mine holy mountain, in the mountain of the height of Israel, saith the Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, serve me: there will I accept them, and there will I require your offerings, and the firstfruits of your oblations, with all your holy things.

5) *MICAH 4:3,7 And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more . . . (7) And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the Lord shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever.

6) *ZECHARIAH 14:9,16 And the Lord shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one Lord, and his name one . . . (16) And it shall come to pass, {that} every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.

{cf. Is 52:7, Ezek 37:24-27, 43:7, Dan 4:34, 7:27, Zech 2:10, Rev 21:3}

1) #PSALM 2:6-8 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. (7) I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou {art} my son; this day have I begotten thee. (8) Ask of me, and I shall give {thee} the heathen {for} thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for {thy} possession.

2) #ISAIAH 9:6-7 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty God, the everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. (7) Of the increase of {his} government and peace {there shall be} no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.

3) #JEREMIAH 23:5-6 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. (6) In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this {is} his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.

4) #JEREMIAH 30:9 But they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.

5) #EZEKIEL 34:23-24 And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, {even} my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. (24) And I the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them; I the Lord have spoken {it}.
6) #EZEKIEL 37:24-25 And David my servant {shall be} king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them. (25) . . . and my servant David {shall be} their prince for ever.

7) #ZECHARIAH 2:11 And many nations shall be joined to the Lord in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto thee.

8) #ZECHARIAH 6:13 Even he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both. {cf. Heb 7:17}

{cf. Ps 110:4, Is 11:4,10, 32:1, 42:1-4, Jer 33:15, Dan 7:14, Hos 3:5, Mic 5:2-5, Zech, 9:9-10}

1) +MATTHEW 21:4-5 All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, (5) Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.

2) +MATTHEW 25:31-32,34,40 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: (32) And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth {his} sheep from the goats . . . (34) Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world . . . (40) And the King shall answer and say unto them, . . .

3) +LUKE 1:31-33 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. (32) He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: (33) And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

4) +LUKE 22:29-30 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me; (30) That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

5) +JOHN 18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth . . .

6) +HEBREWS 1:8 But unto the Son {he saith}, Thy throne, O God, {is} for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness {is} the sceptre of thy kingdom. {cf. Ps 45:6}

7) +REVELATION 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and {to} his throne.

8) +REVELATION 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: . . .

{cf. Mt 19:28, Lk 23:3, Eph 1:20-21, Heb 5:5, 7:17, Rev 7:17, 19:13,16, 20:6}

F. God's Throne

1) *1 KINGS 22:19 And he said, Hear thou therefore the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left.

2) *PSALM 11:4 The Lord {is} in his holy temple, the Lord's throne {is} in heaven: . . .

3) *PSALM 47:8 . . . God sitteth upon the throne of his holiness.

4) *PSALM 93:2 Thy throne {is} established of old: . . .

5) *REVELATION 4:2 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and {one} sat on the throne.

6) *REVELATION 4:10-11 The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, (11) Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: . . .

7) *REVELATION 7:10 . . . Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.

8) *REVELATION 19:4 And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

1) #EZEKIEL 1:26 And above the firmament that {was} over their heads {was} the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne {was} the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.

2) #EZEKIEL 43:6-7 And I heard {him} speaking unto me out of the house; and the man stood by me. (7) And he said unto me, Son of man, the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel for ever, and my holy name, shall the house of Israel no more defile, . . .

1) +MATTHEW 19:28 . . . when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

2) +MATTHEW 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:

3) +HEBREWS 1:8 But unto the Son {he saith}, Thy throne, O God, {is} for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness {is} the sceptre of thy kingdom.

4) +REVELATION 7:17 For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, . . .

5) +REVELATION 22:1,3-4 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. (3) And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him: (4) And they shall see his face; and his name {shall be} in their foreheads.

III. THE UNITY OF GOD AND MONOTHEISM

1) DEUTERONOMY 6:4 Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God {is} one Lord:

2) DEUTERONOMY 32:39 See now that I, {even} I, {am} he, and {there is} no god with me: . . .
3) ISAIAH 37:16,20 O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest {between} the Cherubims, thou {art} the God, {even} thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: thou hast made heaven and earth . . . (20) Now therefore, O Lord our God, save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou {art} the Lord, {even} thou only.

4) ISAIAH 43:10-13 . . . I {am} he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. (11) I, {even} I, {am} the Lord; and beside me {there is} no saviour. (12) I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when {there was} no strange {god} among you: therefore ye {are} my witnesses, saith the Lord, that I {am} God. (13) Yea, before the day {was} I {am} he; and {there is} none that can deliver out of my hand: . . .

5) ISAIAH 44:6,8 Thus saith the Lord the King of Israel, and his redeemer the Lord of hosts; I {am} the first, and I {am} the last; and beside me {there is} no God . . . (8) . . . Is there a God beside me? yea, {there is} no God; I know not {any}.

6) ISAIAH 45:5 I {am} the Lord, and {there is} none else, {there is} no God beside me: . . . {cf. Is 45:6,21-22, 46:9, Mal 2:10}

7) MARK 12:29 . . . The first of all the commandments {is}, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:

8) 1 CORINTHIANS 8:4,6 . . . we know that an idol {is} nothing in the world, and that {there is} none other God but one . . . (6) But to us {there is but} one God, the Father, of whom {are} all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom {are} all things, and we by him. {cf. Eph 4:4-6, 1 Tim 2:5, Jas 2:19}

9) Polytheism Condemned Furthermore, there is no such thing as a "Big God and a little god" scenario in Scripture, as Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, and other heretics maintain. Polytheism is condemned as vigorously as Monotheism is proclaimed (see esp. Deut 32:39 above). Satan is called "the god of this world" in 2 Cor 4:4, but this is to be understood as a "god" not in nature or essence, but only in the sense that people idolatrously worship it, him, or her, as in the following passages:

2 KINGS 17:35 . . . the Lord . . . charged them, saying, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them:

ISAIAH 37:19 And have cast their gods into the fire: for they {were} no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them.

1 CORINTHIANS 8:5-6 For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) (6) But to us {there is but} one God, the Father, of whom {are} all things, . . .

GALATIANS 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.

{cf. Is 44:10,15,17, 46:6, Acts 14:11, 28:6}

IV. THE HOLY SPIRIT AND/OR TRINITARIANISM

1) GENESIS 1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness {was} upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

2) GENESIS 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: . . .

3) GENESIS 3:22 And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: . . .

4) GENESIS 6:3 And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, . . .

5) GENESIS 11:7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, . . .

6) NEHEMIAH 9:20 Thou gavest also thy good spirit to instruct them, . . .

7) ISAIAH 6:8 Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? . . .

8) ISAIAH 40:13 Who hath directed the spirit of the Lord, or {being} his counseller hath taught him? {cf. Rom 11:34, 1 Cor 2:16}

9) ISAIAH 63:10-11,14 But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: . . . (11) Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, {and} his people, {saying}, . . . where {is} he that put his holy Spirit within him? . . . (14) As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest: . . .

10) HAGGAI 2:5 {According to} the word that I covenanted with you . . . , so my spirit remaineth among you: . . .

11) ZECHARIAH 2:8-11 For thus saith the Lord of hosts; After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you: for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye. (9) For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants: and ye shall know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me. (10) Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord. (11) And many nations shall be joined to the Lord in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto thee.

12) ZECHARIAH 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for {his} only {son}, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for {his} firstborn. {applied to Jesus in Jn 19:37}

13) MATTHEW 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

14) LUKE 4:1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,

15) LUKE 12:12 For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say.

16) JOHN 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, {they} are spirit, and {they} are life.

17) JOHN 14:26 But the Comforter, {which is} the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

18) JOHN 15:26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, {even} the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

19) JOHN 16:7-8 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. (8) And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

20) JOHN 16:13-15 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, {that} shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. (14) He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew {it} unto you. (15) All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew {it} unto you.

21) JOHN 17:21-23 That they all may be one; as thou, Father, {art} in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. (22) And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: (23) I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.

22) ACTS 7:51 . . . ye do always resist the Holy Ghost. . .

23) ACTS 8:29 Then the Spirit said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot.

24) ACTS 10:19-20 While Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee. (20) Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing: for I have sent them.

25) ACTS 13:4 . . . being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; . . .

26) ACTS 15:28 For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden . . .

27) ACTS 16:6-7 Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia, (7) After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered them not.

28) ACTS 20:23 Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions abide me.

29) ACTS 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers . . .,

30) ACTS 21:11 . . . Thus saith the Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and shall deliver {him} into the hands of the Gentiles.

31) ROMANS 8:14,16 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God . . . (16) The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, . . .

32) 2 CORINTHIANS 13:14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, {be} with you all. Amen.

33) PHILIPPIANS 1:19 For I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,

34) 1 TIMOTHY 4:1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, . . .

35) HEBREWS 10:29 Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

36) 1 JOHN 5:7-8 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. (8) And there are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one.

37) REVELATION 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed {are} the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

38) REVELATION 22:17 And the Spirit and the bride say, Come . . .

V. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS A PERSON: FORTY PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES

1) Helps: Jn 14:16,26, 15:26, 16:7, Rom 8:26, 1 Jn 2:1.
2) Glorifies: Jn 16:13-14.
3) Can be Known: Jn 14:17.
4) Gives Abilities: Acts 2:4, 1 Cor 12:7-11.
5) Referred to as "He": Jn 14:26, 15:26, 16:7-8,13.
6) Loves: Rom 15:30.
7) Guides: Jn 16:13.
8) Comforts: Jn 14:26, 15:26, 16:7, Acts 9:31.
9) Teaches: Lk 12:12, Jn 14:26.
10) Reminds: Jn 14:26.
11) Bears Witness: Jn 15:26, Acts 5:32, Rom 8:16.
12) Has Impulses: Jn 16:13.
13) Hears: Jn 16:13.
14) Leads: Mt 4:1, Acts 8:39, Rom 8:14.
15) Pleads: Rom 8:26-27.
16) Longs (Yearns): Jas 4:5.
17) Wills: 1 Cor 12:11.
18) Thinks: Acts 15:25,28.
19) Sends: Acts 13:4.
20) Dispatches: Acts 10:20.
21) Impels: Mk 1:12.
22) Speaks: Jn 16:13-15, Acts 8:29, 10:19, 11:12, 13:2.
23) Forbids: Acts 16:6-7.
24) Appoints: Acts 20:28.
25) Reveals: Lk 2:26, 1 Cor 2:10.
26) Calls to Ministry: Acts 13:2.
27) Can be Grieved: Is 63:10, Eph 4:30.
28) Can be Insulted: Heb 10:29.
29) Can be Lied to: Acts 5:3-4.
30) Can be Blasphemed: Mt 12:31-32.
31) Strives: Gen 6:3.
32) Is Knowledgeable: Is 40:13, Acts 10:19, 1 Cor 2:10-13.
33) Can be Vexed: Is 63:10.
34) Judges: Jn 16:8.
35) Prophesies: Acts 21:11, 28:25, 1 Tim 4:1.
36) Has Fellowship: 2 Cor 13:14.
37) Gives Grace: Heb 10:29.
38) Agrees: 1 Jn 5:7-8.
39) Offers Life: 2 Cor 3:6, Rev 22:17.
40) Is the Creator: Job 33:4.

VI. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS GOD: DIRECT BIBLICAL EVIDENCE

1) JOB 33:4 The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life. {Creator}

2) MATTHEW 12:31 . . . All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy {against} the {Holy} Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. {only God can be blasphemed}

3) JOHN 4:24 God {is} a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship {him} in spirit and in truth.

4) ACTS 5:3-4,9 But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back {part} of the price of the land? (4) Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God . . . (9) Then Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? behold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband {are} at the door, and shall carry thee out. {the Holy Spirit is unquestionably called God, by simple deduction}

5) ACTS 13:2 As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. {only God calls}

6) ACTS 28:25 And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, {Isaiah 6:8-10, which is quoted in Acts 28:26-27, applies the words cited to God; thus the Holy Spirit and God are equated in these two passages}

7) 1 CORINTHIANS 2:10-13 But God hath revealed {them} unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. (11) For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. (12) Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. (13) Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

8) 1 CORINTHIANS 3:16 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and {that} the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? {cf. to 1 Cor 6:19}

9) 1 CORINTHIANS 12:4-6,11 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. (5) And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. (6) And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all . . . (11) But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.

10) 2 CORINTHIANS 3:6,17-18 Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life . . . (17) Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord {is}, there {is} liberty. (18) But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, {even} as by the Spirit of the Lord.

11) EPHESIANS 4:30 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

12) HEBREWS 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, . . .

13) 1 PETER 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: . . .

Additionally, in the following four parallelisms, the Holy Spirit is equated with God the Father twice, and with God the Son, Jesus twice:

{ * = God the Father / <> = The Holy Spirit / + = Jesus }

14) Who Spoke Through the Prophets?

*LUKE 1:68,70 Blessed {be} the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people . . . (70) As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: {cf. Is 6:8-10 w/ Acts 28:25-27}

<>ACTS 28:25 And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers,

15) Who "Works" All Things?

*1 CORINTHIANS 12:6 And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.

<>1 CORINTHIANS 12:11 But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.

16) Who is Speaking to the Churches in Revelation 2 and 3?

+REVELATION 2:18 . . . These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet {are} like fine brass; {cf. 1:18, 2:8}

<>REVELATION 2:7 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; . . . {cf. 2:11,17,29, 3:6,13,22}

17) Who Intercedes For Believers?

+ROMANS 8:34 . . . {It is} Christ . . . who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. {cf. Heb 7:22,25, 1 Jn 2:1}

<>ROMANS 8:26-27 Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. (27) And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what {is} the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to {the will of} God.

VII. 13 DESCRIPTIONS APPLIED TO ALL THREE IN THE TRINITY

{ * = God the Father / <> = The Holy Spirit / + = Jesus }

1) Who Indwells Believers?

*JOHN 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.

*1 CORINTHIANS 3:16-17 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and {that} the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? (17) If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which {temple} ye are.

*2 CORINTHIANS 6:16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in {them}; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. {cf. Ex 29:45, Jer 31:33, Ezek 37:27}

*1 JOHN 4:12-16 . . . If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us. (13) Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit. (14) And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son {to be} the Saviour of the world. (15) Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him, and he in God. (16) And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.

<>JOHN 14:16-17 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; (17) {Even} the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. {cf. Jn 14:18 below}

<>ROMANS 8:9,11 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his . . . (11) But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you. {cf. Rom 8:10 below}

<>1 CORINTHIANS 2:12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.

<>1 CORINTHIANS 6:19 What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost {which is} in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? {cf. to 1 Cor 3:16}

<>GALATIANS 4:6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

<>1 JOHN 3:24 . . . And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us.

<>1 JOHN 4:13 Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit. {cf. Neh 9:20, Jn 14:26, 15:26, 16:7-8,13-15, Rom 8:14, 2 Cor 13:14}

+JOHN 14:18 I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. {cf. Jn 14:16-17 above}

+JOHN 14:20 At that day ye shall know that I {am} in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.

+JOHN 14:23 . . . If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.

+JOHN 15:4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.

+JOHN 17:23 I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; . . .

+ROMANS 8:10 And if Christ {be} in you, the body {is} dead because of sin; but the Spirit {is} life because of righteousness. {cf. Rom 8:9 above}

+1 JOHN 3:24 And he that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him . . .

2) Who Raised Jesus From the Dead?

*GALATIANS 1:1 . . . God the Father, who raised him from the dead;) {cf. 1 Thess 1:10}

<>ROMANS 8:11 . . . the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, . . .

+JOHN 2:19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

+JOHN 10:17-18 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. (18) No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.

3) Who Searches Minds and Hearts?

*JEREMIAH 17:10 I the Lord search the heart, {I} try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, {and} according to the fruit of his doings.

<>1 CORINTHIANS 2:10 But God hath revealed {them} unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.

+REVELATION 2:23 . . . I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.

4) Who Sanctifies Us?

*1 THESSALONIANS 5:23 And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; . . .

<>1 PETER 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the spirit, . . .

+HEBREWS 13:12 Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.

5) Who Gives Us Words to Speak?

*MATTHEW 10:19-20 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. (20) For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.

<>MARK 13:11 But when they shall lead {you}, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost. {cf. Lk 12:11-12, Jn 14:26}

+LUKE 21:14-15 Settle {it} therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer: (15) For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist.

6) Who Gave the New Covenant?

*JEREMIAH 31:33-34 But this {shall be} the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. (34) And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.

<>HEBREWS 10:15-17 {Whereof} the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before, (16) This {is} the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them; (17) And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.

+HEBREWS 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, . . . {cf. 8:1-13, 10:29, 13:20}
7) Who is the Creator?

*Gen 1:1, Is 44:24, Acts 17:24, Eph 3:9 / <>Job 33:4 / +Jn 1:3, Col 1:16, Heb 1:8,10

8) Who is Our Helper?

*Heb 13:6 / <>Rom 8:26 / +Heb 4:16

9) Who Are We Baptized in the Name of?

* <> + Mt 28:19

10) Who Comforts Us?

*2 Cor 1:3-4 / <>Acts 9:31 / +2 Cor 1:5 {cf. Jn 16:7}

11) Who Gives us Peace?

*Phil 4:7, 1 Cor 14:33 / <>Gal 5:22 / +Jn 14:27, Eph 2:14

12) Who Sends Out Christians?

*Mt 9:38 / <>Acts 13:4 / +Mt 10:16, Mar 3:14, Jn 20:21

13) Who Calls Christians to Ministry?

*Rom 8:28-30, Gal 1:15 / <>Acts 13:2 / +Rom 1:6

VIII. GOD'S APPEARANCES AS A MAN IN THE O.T. (THEOPHANIES)

1) GENESIS 18:1-4 And the Lord appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; (2) And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw {them}, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground, (3) And said, My Lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant: (4) Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree: {cf. 18:13,17,22}

2) GENESIS 32:24,30 And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day . . . (30) And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. {cf. 35:9-15}

3) EXODUS 24:10-11 And they saw the God of Israel: and {there was} under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in {his} clearness. (11) And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, . . .

4) ISAIAH 6:1 In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.

5) EZEKIEL 43:6-7 And I heard {him} speaking unto me out of the house; and the man stood by me. (7) And he said unto me, Son of man, the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel for ever, and my holy name, shall the house of Israel no more defile, {neither} they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, nor by the carcases of their kings in their high places.

6) The "Angel of the Lord" Furthermore, the "Angel of the Lord" is identified as YHWH/God/The LORD several times in Scripture. Yet, in other instances, his identity is distinguished from God (e.g., 2 Sam 24:16, 1 Kin 19:6-7, 2 Kin 19:35, Dan 3:25,28, 6:23, Zech 1:8-14), or is ambiguous (Num 22:22, Josh 5:13-14). In the following passages this Angel is regarded as God Himself, either directly or inferentially:

7) GENESIS 31:11-13 And the angel of God spake unto me in a dream, {saying}, Jacob: And I said, Here {am} I. (12) And he said, Lift up now thine eyes, and see, all the rams which leap upon the cattle {are} ringstraked, speckled, and grisled: for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee. (13) I {am} the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst the pillar, {and} where thou vowedst a vow unto me: . . .

8) EXODUS 3:2-6 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was {not} consumed. (3) And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. (4) And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here {am} I. (5) And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest {is} {holy} ground. (6) Moreover he said, I {am} the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

9) EXODUS 3:14,16 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you . . . (16) Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and {seen} that which is done to you in Egypt:

10) JUDGES 2:1 And an angel of the Lord came up from Gilgal to Bochim, and said, I . . . have brought you unto the land which I sware unto your fathers; and I said, I will never break my covenant with you.

11) JUDGES 6:12,14 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him, and said unto him, The Lord {is} with thee, thou mighty man of valour . . . (14) And the Lord looked upon him, and said, Go in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have not I sent thee? {cf. 6:16,20-23}

12) JOSHUA 5:14-15 And he said, Nay; but {as} captain of the host of the Lord am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my lord unto his servant? (15) And the captain of the Lord's host said unto Joshua, Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest {is} holy . . .

13) ZECHARIAH 12:8 In that day shall the Lord defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David {shall be} as God, as the angel of the Lord before them.

In Acts 8:26,29, an identification of the Angel of the Lord with the Holy Spirit might be inferred:

14) ACTS 8:26,29 And the angel of the Lord spake unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go toward the south . . . (29) Then the Spirit said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot. {cf. Gen 16:7-14, 21:17-19, 22:11-18, 31:11-13, Ex 13:21 w/ 14:19, Jud 13:13-22, Zech 3:1-2}

IX. JESUS IS THE IMAGE OF THE INVISIBLE FATHER

A. God the Father is Invisible, and Can't be Seen

1) EXODUS 33:20,23 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live . . . (23) And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen. {cf. Jud 13:22}

2) JOHN 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time . . .

3) JOHN 5:37 And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.

4) JOHN 6:46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father.

5) COLOSSIANS 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:

6) 1 TIMOTHY 1:17 . . . the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, . . .

7) 1 TIMOTHY 6:16 Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: . . .

8) 1 JOHN 4:12 No man hath seen God at any time . . .

B. Jesus Reveals, and is the Image of, the Father

1) JOHN 1:18 . . . the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared {him}. {RSV,NIV: "made him known"}

2) JOHN 12:45 And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me.

3) JOHN 14:7-9 If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him. (8) Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. (9) Jesus saith unto him, have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou {then}, Shew us the Father?

4) 2 CORINTHIANS 4:4 . . . Christ, who is the image of God, . . .

5) COLOSSIANS 1:15 . . . the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:

6) HEBREWS 1:3 Who being the brightness of {his} glory, and the express image of his person, . . .

7) REVELATION 22:1,3-4 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb . . . (3) And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him: (4) And they shall see his face; . . .

8) The "Seen"/"Unseen" Paradox The seeming contradiction of God being "seen" (as in the theophanies above, and in other passages such as Gen 17:1, 33:11, Num 12:7-8, Deut 34:10, Jud 13:22, Is 6:5), and "not seen" (in passages such as Ex 33:20, 1 Tim 6:16, and 1 Jn 4:12), has been explained variously. One can take the position that all or some of the theophanies and appearances of the Angel of the Lord (as God Himself) are pre-incarnate appearances of Christ, which would solve the paradox. The Apostle John (Jn 12:41) appears to interpret Isaiah's vision of God (Is 6:1-8) as precisely such an appearance. Or, it is possible to maintain that God created visual manifestations of Himself which were not identical with Himself. In these instances what is being seen are the effects of God's unmediated presence.

Theophanies, in any event, are not always personal appearances of God. For example, non-personal theophanies include the burning bush (Ex 3:1-6), the pillars of cloud and fire (Ex 13:21-22), the cloud and fire of Mt. Sinai (Ex 24:16-18), and the Shekinah glory cloud (Ex 40:34-38). No one would hold that the non-personal appearances represent a direct experience of God's essence. In the same fashion, the personal theophanies can be considered as manifestations one step removed from the actual Father Himself. But, on the other hand, for those who deny the incarnation of Christ, theophanies do show that the notion of God becoming a man is not altogether incomprehensible or impossible, but rather, somewhat plausible (based strictly on the existence and function of theophanies alone). As such, theophanies might be considered precursors (along with verses such as Is 9:6 and Mic 5:2) of the incarnation of the Messiah Jesus, the Son of God (and literally so, if it is believed that these theophanies are pre-incarnate appearances of Christ).

Whenever God is seen, it must either be in the sense of one of these manifestations, or else a beholding of the Son, Jesus, who reveals the Father, as in the verses directly above. In this way, the passages about the invisible God are explained in a non-contradictory manner. Jesus' role as the "image" (Greek, eikon) of the Father also is harmonious with the biblical trinitarian view of the nature of God, while contrary views encounter insuperable logical problems with many biblical passages which appear at first to be contradictory. Not only in this area, but in hundreds of analogous texts, as illustrated above, will the non-trinitarian be hard-pressed to explain rationally the biblical picture of the theology of God (assuming he accepts the validity of the inspired Bible itself). Only trinitarianism can make sense out of, and harmonize all the biblical material, and this is proven beyond refutation in the above copious and comprehensive biblical evidences.

X. A DEFINITION OF THE TRINITY: THE ATHANASIAN CREED

In the early centuries of its existence, the Catholic Church, in order to codify and crystallize all of the biblical data on the Holy Trinity, and to counter various heresies, produced Creeds. The most famous of these are the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, recited in church by most Christians regularly. But the Athanasian Creed is the classic statement of trinitarian theology. It was not written by St. Athanasius, but was later named after this great saint who fought (almost singlehandedly at times) against the Arian heretics of the fourth century, who denied the Trinity. Its authorship and precise dating are, strangely enough, shrouded in mystery, but scholars believe it probably originated in the middle of the fifth century in southern France (by literary deduction, it can almost certainly be dated no earlier than 415, nor later than 542).

The Creed is clearly Augustinian in influence and character, and is in fact directly derived in several places from St. Augustine's work On the Trinity (c.415), as well as St. Vincent of Lerins' Notebooks (c.434), and Excerpta (c.440). Accordingly, St. Vincent, or perhaps an admirer of his, have been considered by some as possible authors. In the context of its historical period, the Athanasian Creed was written in opposition to the Nestorian and Eutychian heresies. It does not allude to the Monophysite and Monothelite errors (which fact offers a strong indication as to its date of composition). In a general way it opposes Unitarianism, tritheism, and Arianism.

Protestant church historian Philip Schaff comments on it with the following glowing words:

Beyond [the Athanasian Creed] the orthodox development of the doctrine in the
Roman and Evangelical churches to this day has made no advance. This Creed is
unsurpassed as a masterpiece of logical clearness, rigor, and precision; and so far as it is possible at all to state in limited dialectic form, and to protect against heresy, the inexhaustible depths of a mystery of faith into which the angels desire to look, this liturgical theological confession achieves the task . . . The Athanasian Creed . . . clearly and concisely sums up the results of the trinitarian and Christological controversies of the ancient church . . . The anathema is to be referred to the heresies, and may not be applied to particular persons, whose judge is God alone.

{History of the Christian Church, vol. 3, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974 (orig. rev. ed., 1910), 690, 697}
The Athanasian Creed follows, taken from Schaff's work:

1. Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic faith.
2. Which faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.
3. But this is the catholic faith: That we worship one God in trinity, and trinity in unity;
4. Neither confounding the persons; nor dividing the substance.
5. For there is one person of the Father: another of the Son: another of the Holy Spirit.
6. But the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit is all one: the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal.
7. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit.
8. The Father is uncreated: the Son is uncreated: the Holy Spirit is uncreated.
9. The Father is immeasurable: the Son is immeasurable: the Holy Spirit is immeasurable.
10. The Father is eternal: the Son eternal: the Holy Spirit eternal.
11. And yet there are not three eternals; but one eternal.
12. As also there are not three uncreated: nor three immeasurable: but one uncreated, and one immeasurable.
13. So likewise the Father is almighty: the Son almighty: and the Holy Spirit almighty.
14. And yet there are not three almighties: but one almighty.
15. So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Spirit is God.
16. And yet there are not three Gods; but one God.
17. So the Father is Lord: the Son Lord: and the Holy Spirit Lord.
18. And yet not three Lords; but one Lord.
19. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord:
20. So are we forbidden by the catholic religion to say, there are three Gods, or three Lords.
21. The Father is made of none; neither created; nor begotten.
22. The Son is of the Father alone: not made; nor created; but begotten.
23. The Holy Spirit is of the Father and the Son: not made; neither created; nor begotten; but proceeding.
24. Thus there is one father, not three Fathers: one Son, not three Sons: one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits.
25. And in this Trinity none is before or after another: none is greater or less than another.
26. But the whole three Persons are co-eternal together, and co-equal.
27. So that in all things, as aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshiped.
28. He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity.
29. Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation, that we believe also rightly in the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.
30. Now the right faith is, that we believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man.
31. God, of the substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds: and Man, of the substance of His mother, born in the world.
32. Perfect God: perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting.
33. Equal to the Father as touching His Godhead: inferior to the Father as touching His Manhood.
34. And although He be God and Man; yet He is not two, but one Christ.
35. One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh; but by assumption of the Manhood into God.
36. One altogether, not by confusion of substance; but by unity of person.
37. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man; so God and Man is one Christ.
38. Who suffered for our salvation: descended into Hades: rose again the third day from the dead.
39. He ascended into heaven. He sits on the right hand of God, the Father almighty:
40. From whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead.
41. At whose coming all men must rise again with their bodies;
42. And shall give account for their own works.
43. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting; but they that have done evil, into everlasting fire.
44. This is the catholic faith; which except a man believe truly and firmly, he cannot be saved.

Dave Armstrong: Protestant evangelical campus, street, and counter-cult missionary, and pro-life activist, August 1988 (age 30). Two years and two months later (little did I know), I would be convinced of the fullness of truth of Catholicism. The paper below gives a capsule summary of the reasons why.

150 Reasons Why I am a Catholic (Revised)



*****Featuring 300 Biblical Evidences Favoring Catholicism*****

[originally written in 1992]

1. Best One-Sentence Summary: I am convinced that the Catholic Church conforms much more closely to all of the biblical data, offers the only coherent view of the history of Christianity (i.e., Christian, apostolic Tradition), and possesses the most profound and sublime Christian morality, spirituality, social ethic, and philosophy.

2. Alternate: I am a Catholic because I sincerely believe, by virtue of much cumulative evidence, that Catholicism is true, and that the Catholic Church is the visible Church divinely established by our Lord Jesus, against which the gates of hell cannot and will not prevail (Mt 16:18), thereby possessing an authority to which I feel bound in Christian duty to submit.

3. 2nd Alternate: I left Protestantism because it was seriously deficient in its interpretation of the Bible (e.g., "faith alone" and its missing many other "Catholic" doctrines - see evidences below), inconsistently selective in its espousal of various doctrines of Catholic Tradition (e.g., the canon of the Bible), inadequate in its ecclesiology, lacking a sensible view of Christian history (e.g., "Scripture alone"; ignorance or inconsistent understanding of of development of doctrine), compromised morally (e.g., contraception, divorce), and unbiblically schismatic and (in effect, or logical reduction, if not always in actual belief) relativistic.

Disclaimer: I don't therefore believe that Protestantism is all bad (not by a long shot - indeed, I think it is a pretty good thing overall), but these are some of the major deficiencies I eventually saw as fatal to the "theory" of Protestantism, over against Catholicism. All Catholics must regard baptized, Nicene, Chalcedonian Protestants as Christians.

4. Catholicism isn't formally divided and sectarian (Jn 17:20-23; Rom 16:17; 1 Cor 1:10-13).

5. Catholic unity makes Christianity and Jesus more believable to the world (Jn 17:23).

6. Catholicism, because of its unified, complete, fully supernatural Christian vision, mitigates against secularization and humanism.

7. Catholicism (institutionally) avoids (and/or has the remedy to) an unbiblical individualism which undermines Christian community (e.g., 1 Cor 12:25-26).

8. Catholicism avoids theological relativism, by means of dogmatic certainty and the centrality of the papacy.

9. Catholicism avoids ecclesiological anarchism - one cannot merely jump to another denomination when some disciplinary measure or censure is called for.

10. Catholicism formally (although, sadly, not always in practice) prevents the theological "pick and choose" state of affairs, which leads to the uncertainties and "every man for himself" confusion within the Protestant system among laypeople.

11. Catholicism rejects the "State Church," which has led to governments dominating Christianity rather than vice versa, caesaropapism, or a nominal, merely "go through the motions" institutional religion.

12. Protestant State Churches greatly influenced the rise of nationalism, which mitigated against equality of all men and the universal nature of historic Christianity (i.e., catholicism in its literal meaning).

13. Unified Catholic Christendom (before the 16th century) had not been plagued by the tragic, Christian vs. Christian religious wars which in turn led to the "Enlightenment," in which men rejected the hypocrisy of inter-Christian warfare and decided to become indifferent to religion rather than letting it guide their lives.

14. Catholicism retains (to the fullest extent) the elements of mystery, supernatural, and the sacred in Christianity, thus opposing itself to secularization, where the sphere of the religious in life becomes greatly limited.

15. Protestant individualism led to the privatization of Christianity, whereby it is little respected in societal and political life, leaving the "public square" largely barren of Christian influence.

16. The secular false dichotomy of "church vs. world" has led committed orthodox Christians, by and large, to withdraw from politics, leaving a void filled by pagans, cynics, the unscrupulous, the power-hungry, and the Machiavellian. Catholicism offers a sensible, internally-coherent framework in which to approach the state and civic responsibility.

17. Protestantism leans too much on mere traditions of men. Every denomination stems from one founder's vision, which contradicts something previously received from apostolic Tradition and passed down. As soon as two or more of these contradict each other, error is necessarily present.

18. Protestant churches (especially evangelicals), are far too often guilty of putting their pastors on too high of a pedestal. In effect, often pastors (at least in some denominational traditions) becomes a "pope," to varying degrees. Because of this, evangelical congregations often experience a severe crisis and/or split up when a pastor leaves, thus proving that their philosophy is overly man-centered, rather than God-centered (Catholic parishes usually don't experience such a crisis when a priest departs). Many pastors have far more power in their congregations than the pope has over the daily life of any Catholic.

19. Protestantism, due to lack of real authority and dogmatic structure, is tragically prone to accommodation to the spirit of the age, and moral faddism.

20. Catholicism retains apostolic succession, necessary to know what is true Christian apostolic Tradition. It was the criterion of Christian truth used by the early Christians and the Church Fathers.

21. Many Protestants take a dim view towards Christian history in general, especially the years from 313 (Constantine's conversion) to 1517 (Luther's arrival). This ignorance and hostility to Catholic Tradition leads to theological relativism, anti-Catholicism, and a constant, unnecessary process of "reinventing the wheel."

22. Protestantism from its inception was anti-Catholic, and certain factions of it remain so to this day (especially in certain fundamentalist and Baptist and Reformed circles). This is obviously wrong and unbiblical if Catholicism is indeed Christian (if it isn't, then - logically - neither is Protestantism, which inherited the bulk of its theology from Catholicism). The Catholic Church, on the other hand, is not anti-Protestant.

23. The Catholic Church accepts the authority of the great ecumenical councils (see, e.g., Acts 15) which defined and developed Christian doctrine (much of which Protestantism also accepts).

24. Most Protestants do not have bishops, a Christian office which is biblical (1 Tim 3:1-2) and which has existed from the earliest Christian history and Tradition.

25. Protestantism has no way of settling doctrinal issues definitively. At best, the individual Protestant can only take a head count of how many Protestant scholars, commentators, etc. take such-and-such a view on Doctrine X, Y, or Z. Or (in a more sophisticated fashion), the Protestant can simply accept the authority of some denominational tradition, confession, or creed (which then has to be justified over against the other competing ones). There is no unified Protestant Tradition.

26. Protestantism arose in 1517, and is a "Johnny-come-lately" in the history of Christianity (having introduced many doctrines previously accepted by no Christian group, or very few individuals). Therefore it cannot possibly be the "restoration" of "pure", "primitive" Christianity, since this is ruled out by the fact of its novelties and absurdly late appearance. Christianity must have historic continuity or it is not Christianity. Protestantism is necessarily a "parasite" of Catholicism: historically and doctrinally speaking.

27. The notion (common among many Protestants) of the "invisible church" is also novel in the history of Christianity and foreign to the Bible (Mt 5:14; 16:18), therefore untrue.

28. When Protestant theologians speak of the teaching of early Christianity (e.g., when refuting "cults"), they say "the Church taught . . ." (as it was then unified), but when they refer to the present they instinctively and inconsistently refrain from such terminology, since universal teaching authority now clearly resides only in the Catholic Church.

29. The Protestant principle of private judgment has created a milieu (especially in Protestant America) in which it is easier for (invariably) man-centered "cults" such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, and Christian Science arise. The very notion that one can "start" a new, or "the true" Church is Protestant to the core. Though (I want to stress) these cults are not Protestant themselves; nevertheless they tend to proliferate, given the existence of certain false Protestant principles of epistemology and authority.

30. The lack of a definitive teaching authority in Protestant (as with the Catholic magisterium) makes many individual Protestants think that they have a direct line to God, notwithstanding all of Christian Tradition and the history of biblical exegesis (a "Bible, Holy Spirit and me" mentality). Such people are generally under-educated theologically, unteachable, lack humility, and have no business making presumed "infallible" statements about the nature of Christianity.

31. Evangelicalism's "techniques" of evangelism are often contrived and manipulative, certainly not directly derived from the text of the Bible. Some even resemble brainwashing to a degree. [I speak as a former street and campus and counter-cult evangelist myself, who avoided these techniques then, as I do now]

32. Sadly, too many evangelical Protestant evangelists and pastors present a truncated and abridged, individualistic and ear-tickling gospel, in effect merely "fire insurance" rather than the biblical gospel as proclaimed by the apostles.

33. Evangelicalism often separates profound, life-transforming repentance and radical discipleship from its gospel message. The Lutheran Dietrich Bonhoeffer called this "cheap grace."

34. The absence of the idea of submission to spiritual authority in Protestantism has leaked over into the civic arena, where the ideas of personal "freedom," "rights," and "choice" now dominate to such an extent that civic duty, communitarianism, and discipline are tragically neglected, to the detriment of a healthy society.

35. Catholicism retains the sense of the sacred, the sublime, the holy, and the beautiful in spirituality. The ideas of altar, and "sacred space" are preserved. Many Protestant churches are no more than "meeting halls" or "gymnasiums" or "barn"-type structures. Most Protestants' homes are more esthetically striking than their churches. Likewise, Protestants (particularly fundamentalists and too many evangelicals) are often "addicted to mediocrity" in their appreciation of art, music, architecture, drama, the imagination, etc.

36. Protestantism has too often neglected the place of liturgy in worship (with notable exceptions such as Anglicanism and Lutheranism). This is the way Christians had always worshiped down through the centuries, and thus can't be so lightly dismissed.

37. Too many brands of Protestantism tend to oppose matter and spirit, favoring the latter, and sometimes exhibit Gnostic or Docetic strains of thought in this regard.

38. Catholicism upholds in the fullest way the "incarnational principle," wherein Jesus became flesh and thus raised flesh and matter to new spiritual heights.

39. Some strains of Protestantism (particularly evangelicalism and pentecostalism and especially the Baptists) greatly limit or disbelieve in sacramentalism, which is simply the extension of the incarnational principle and the belief that matter can convey grace. Some sects (e.g., Quakers and the Salvation Army) reject all sacraments.

40. Too many Protestants' excessive mistrust of the flesh ("carnality") often leads to (in evangelicalism or fundamentalism) an absurd legalism (no dancing, drinking, card-playing, rock music, etc.).

41. Many Protestants tend to separate life into categories of "spiritual" and "carnal," as if God is not Lord of all of life. They forget that all non-sinful endeavors are ultimately spiritual.

42. Many Protestant denominations have removed the Eucharist from the center and focus of Christian worship services. Some Protestants observe it only monthly, or even quarterly (the Reformed are notorious for this). This is against the Tradition of the early Church.

43. Most Protestants (Lutherans and high-church Anglicans being the exception) believe in a merely symbolic Eucharist, which is contrary to universal Christian Tradition up to 1517, and the Bible (Mt 26:26-8; Jn 6:47-63; 1 Cor 10:14-22; 11:23-30), which hold to the Real Presence (another instance of the antipathy to matter).

44. Protestantism almost universally denies the sacramentality of marriage, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Mt 19:4-5; 1 Cor 7:14,39; Eph 5:25-33).

45. Protestantism has abolished the priesthood (Mt 18:18) and the sacrament of ordination, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Acts 6:6; 14:22; 1 Tim 4:14; 2 Tim 1:6).

46. Catholicism retains the Pauline notion of the spiritual practicality, prudence, and wisdom of a celibate clergy (e.g., Mt 19:12, 1 Cor 7:8,27,32-3).

47. Protestantism has largely rejected the sacrament of confirmation (Acts 8:18, Heb 6:2-4), contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible.

48. A significant minority of Protestants have denied infant baptism, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Acts 2:38-9; 16:15,33; 18:8; cf. 11:14; 1 Cor 1:16; Col 2:11-12). Protestantism is divided into five major camps on the question of baptism.

49. The majority of Protestants deny baptismal regeneration, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Mk 16:16; Jn 3:5; Acts 2:38; 22:16; Rom 6:3-4; 1 Cor 6:11; Titus 3:5).

50. Protestants have rejected the sacrament of anointing of the sick (Extreme Unction / "Last Rites"), contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Mk 6:13; 1 Cor 12:9,30; Jas 5:14-15).

51. Protestantism denies the indissolubility of sacramental marriage and allows divorce, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Gen 2:24; Mal 2:14-16; Mt 5:32; 19:6,9; Mk
10:11-12; Lk 16:18; Rom 7:2-3; 1 Cor 7:10-14,39).

52. Many Protestants deny that procreation is the primary purpose and benefit of marriage (it isn't part of the vows, as in Catholic matrimony), contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Gen 1:28; 28:3, Ps 107:38; 127:3-5).

53. Protestantism sanctions contraception, in defiance of universal Christian Tradition (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) up until 1930 - when the Anglicans first allowed it - and the Bible (Gen 38:8-10; 41:52; Ex 23:25-6; Lev 26:9; Deut 7:14; Ruth 4:13; Lk 1:24-5). Luther and Calvin, e.g., regarded it as murder. Now, only Catholicism retains the ancient Tradition, over against the "anti-child" mentality.

54. Protestantism (mostly its liberal wing, but alarmingly in many other places, too) has accepted abortion as a moral option, contrary to universal Christian Tradition until recently (sometime after 1930), and the Bible (e.g., Ex 20:13; Job 31:15; Ps 139:13-16; Isa 44:2; 49:5; Jer 1:5; 2:34; Lk 1:15,41; Rom 13:9-10).

55. Protestantism (largely liberal denominations, but not exclusively so) allow women pastors (and even bishops, as in Anglicanism), contrary to Christian Tradition (including. traditional Protestant theology) and the Bible (Mt 10:1-4; 1 Tim 2:11-15; 3:1-12; Titus 1:6).

56. Protestantism is, more and more, formally and officially compromising with currently fashionable radical feminism, which denies the roles of men and women, as taught in the Bible (Gen 2:18-23; 1 Cor 11:3-10) and maintained by Christian Tradition (differentiation of roles, but not of equality).

57. Protestantism is also currently denying, with increasing frequency, the headship of the husband in marriage, which is based upon the headship of the Father over the Son (while equal in essence) in the Trinity, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (1 Cor 11:3; Eph 5:22-33; Col 3:18-19; 1 Pet 3:1-2). This too, is based on a relationship of equality (1 Cor 11:11-12; Gal 3:28; Eph 5:21).

58. Liberal Protestantism (most notably Anglicanism) has even ordained practicing homosexuals as pastors and blessed their "marriages," or taught that homosexuality is merely an involuntary, "alternate" lifestyle, contrary to formerly universal Christian Tradition, as the Bible clearly teaches (Gen 19:4-25; Rom 1:18-27; 1 Cor 6:9). Catholicism stands firm on traditional sexual morality.

59. Liberal Protestantism, and evangelicalism increasingly, have accepted "higher critical" methods of biblical interpretation which lead to the destruction of the traditional Christian reverence for the Bible, and demote it to the status of largely a human, fallible document, to the detriment of its divine, infallible essence.

60. Much of liberal Protestantism has thrown out many cardinal doctrines of Christianity, such as the incarnation, virgin birth, the bodily resurrection of Christ, the Trinity, original sin, hell, the existence of the devil, miracles, etc.

61. The founders of Protestantism denied, and Calvinists today deny, the reality of human free will (Luther's favorite book was his Bondage of the Will). This is contrary to the constant premise of the Bible, Christian Tradition, and common sense.

62. Classical Protestantism had a deficient view of the Fall of Man, thinking that the result was "total depravity." According to Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Calvinists, man could only do evil of his own volition, and had no free will to do good. He now has a "sin nature." Catholicism believes that, in a mysterious way, man cooperates with the grace which always originates from God and precedes all good actions. In Catholicism, man's nature still retains some good, although he has a propensity to sin ("concupiscence").

63. Classical Protestantism, and Calvinism today, comes perilously close to making God the author of evil. He supposedly wills that men do evil and violate His precepts without having any free will to do so.

64. Accordingly (man having no free will), in classical Protestant and Calvinist thought, God predestines men to hell, although they had no choice or say in the matter all along.

65. Classical Protestantism and Calvinism, teach falsely that Jesus died only for the elect (i.e., those who will make it to heaven).

66. Classical Protestantism (especially Luther), and Calvinism, deny natural theology, and tend to dichotomize reason against God and faith, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Mk 12:28; Lk 10:27; Jn 20:24-9; Acts 1:3; 17:2,17,22-34; 19:8). The best Protestant apologists today simply hearken back to the Catholic heritage of St. Aquinas, St. Augustine, and many other great thinkers.

67. Pentecostal or charismatic Protestantism strongly tend to place much too high an emphasis on spiritual experience, not balancing it properly with reason, the Bible, and Tradition (including the authority of the Church to pronounce on the validity of "private revelations").

68. Other Protestants (e.g., many Baptists) deny that spiritual gifts such as healing are present in the current age (supposedly they ceased with the apostles). This position is called cessationism.

69. Protestantism has contradictory views of church government, or ecclesiology (episcopal, presbyterian, congregational, or no collective authority at all), thus making widespread discipline, unity and order impossible. Some sects even claim to have "apostles" or "prophets" among them, with all the accompanying abuses of authority resulting therefrom.

70. Some strains of Protestantism (especially evangelicalism and fundamentalism) have an undue fascination for - even obsession with - the "end of the world," which has led to unbiblical date-setting (Mt 24:30-44; 25:13; Lk 12:39-40) and much human tragedy among those who are taken in by such false prophecies.

71. Over-emphasis on the "imminent end" of the age (where found in Protestantism) has often led to a certain "pie-in-the sky" mentality, to the detriment of social, political, ethical, and economic sensibilities here on earth.

72. Protestant thought has a strong characteristic or tendency of being "dichotomous," i.e., it separates ideas into more or less exclusive and mutually-hostile camps, when in fact many of the dichotomies are simply complementary rather than contradictory. Protestantism has been described as an "either-or" system, whereas Catholicism takes a "both-and" approach. Examples follow:

73. Protestantism pits the Word (the Bible, preaching) against sacraments.

74. Protestantism sets up inner devotion and piety against liturgy.

75. Protestantism opposes spontaneous worship to form prayers.

76. Protestantism separates the Bible from the Church.

77. Protestantism creates the false dichotomy of Bible vs. Tradition.

78. Protestantism pits Tradition against the Holy Spirit.

79. Protestantism considers (binding) Church authority and individual liberty and conscience contradictory.

80. Some forms of Protestantism (notably Luther and present-day dispensationalists) set up the Old Testament against the New Testament, even though Jesus did not do so (Mt 5:17-19; Mk 7:8-11; Lk 24:27,44; Jn 5:45-47).

81. On equally unbiblical grounds, some Protestants (notably, Lutherans) opposes law to grace.

82. Protestantism creates a false dichotomy between symbolism and sacramental reality (e.g., baptism, Eucharist).

83. Protestantism strongly tends to separate the individual from Christian community (1 Cor 12:14-27).

84. Protestantism pits the veneration of saints against the worship of God. Catholic theology doesn't permit worship of saints. Rather, saints are revered and honored, not adored, as only God the Creator can be.

85. The anti-historical outlook of many Protestants leads to individuals thinking that the Holy Spirit is speaking to them, but has not, in effect, spoken to the multitudes of Christians for 1500 years before Protestantism began.

86. Flaws in original Protestant thought have led to even worse errors in reaction. E.g., extrinsic justification, devised to assure the predominance of grace, came to prohibit any outward sign of its presence ("faith vs. works," sola fide). Calvinism, with its overly stern and rigid God, turned men off to such an extent that they became Unitarians (as in New England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries). Many founders of cults of recent origin started out Calvinist (Jehovah's Witnesses, Christian Science, The Way International, etc.). One error begets another more serious and damaging error.

87. Evangelicalism is unbiblically obsessed (in typically American fashion) with celebrities (TV Evangelists).

88. Evangelicalism is infatuated with the false idea that great numbers in a congregation (or rapid growth) are a sign of God's presence in a special way, and His unique blessing. They forget that Mormonism is also growing by leaps and bounds. God calls us to faithfulness rather than to "success"; obedience, not flattering statistics.

89. Evangelicalism often emphasizes numerical growth rather than individual spiritual growth.

90. Evangelicalism is presently obsessed with self-fulfillment, self-help, and oftentimes, outright selfishness, rather than the traditional Christian stress on suffering, sacrifice, and service. A visit to the average "Christian bookstore" will quickly confirm this.

91. Evangelicalism has a truncated and insufficient view of the place of suffering in the Christian life. Instead, "health-and-wealth" and "name-it-and-claim-it" movements within
pentecostal Protestantism are flourishing, which have a view of possessions and spiritual well-being not in harmony with the Bible and Christian Tradition.

92. Many evangelicals have adopted a worldview which is, in many ways, more capitalist than Christian. Wealth and personal gain is sought more than godliness, and is seen as a proof of God's favor, as in Puritan, and secularized American thought, over against the Bible and Christian teaching.

93. Evangelicalism is increasingly tolerating leftist political outlooks not in accord with Christian views, especially at its seminaries and colleges.

94. Evangelicalism is increasingly tolerating theological heterodoxy and liberalism, to such an extent that many evangelical leaders are alarmed, and predict a further decay of orthodox standards.

95. "Positive confession" movements in pentecostal evangelicalism have adopted views of God (in effect) as a "cosmic bellhop," subject to man's frivolous whims and desires of the moment, thus denying God's absolute sovereignty and prerogative to turn down any of man's improper prayer requests (Jas 4:3; 1 Jn 5:14).

96. The above sects usually teach that anyone can be healed who has enough "faith," contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (e.g., Job, St. Paul's "thorn in the flesh," usually considered a disease by most Protestant commentators).

97. Evangelicalism, by its own self-critiques, is badly infected with pragmatism, the false philosophical view that "whatever works is true, or right." The gospel, especially on television, is often sold in the same way that McDonalds hawks hamburgers. Technology, mass-market and public relations techniques have too often replaced personal pastoral care and social concern for the downtrodden, irreligious, and unchurched masses.

98. Sin, in evangelicalism, is increasingly seen as a psychological failure or a lack of self-esteem, rather than the willful revolt against God that it is.

99. Protestantism, in all essential elements, merely borrows wholesale from Catholic Tradition, or distorts the same. All doctrines upon which Catholics and Protestants agree, are clearly Catholic in origin (Holy Trinity, virgin birth, Jesus' Resurrection, second coming, canon of the Bible, heaven, hell, etc.). Those where Protestantism differs are usually distortions of Catholic forerunners. For example, Quakerism is a variant of Catholic Quietism. Calvinism is an over-obsession with the Catholic idea of the sovereignty of God, but taken to lengths beyond what Catholicism ever taught (denial of free will, total depravity, double predestination, etc.). Protestant dichotomies such as faith vs. works, come from the nominalism of the late Middle Ages, which was itself a corrupt form of Scholasticism, never dogmatically sanctioned by the Catholic Church. Whatever life or truth is present in each Protestant idea, always is derived from Catholicism, which is the fulfillment of the deepest and best aspirations within Protestantism.

100. One of Protestantism's foundational principles is sola Scriptura, which is neither biblical (see below), historical (nonexistent until the 16th century), nor logical (it's self-defeating) idea:

101. The Bible doesn't contain the whole of Jesus' teaching, or Christianity, as many Protestants believe (Mk 4:33; 6:34; Lk 24:15-16,25-27; Jn 16:12; 20:30; 21:25; Acts 1:2-3).

102. Sola scriptura is an abuse of the Bible, since it is a use of the Bible contrary to its explicit and implicit testimony about itself and Tradition. An objective reading of the Bible leads one to Tradition and the Catholic Church, rather than the opposite. The Bible is, in fact, undeniably a Christian Tradition itself.

103. The NT was neither written nor received as the Bible at first, but only gradually so (i.e., early Christianity couldn't have believed in sola Scriptura like current Protestants, unless it referred to the OT alone).

104. Tradition is not a bad word in the Bible. The Greek paradosis refers to something handed on from one to another (good or bad). Good (Christian) Tradition is spoken of in 1 Cor 11:2; 2 Thess 2:15, 3:6, and Col 2:8. In the latter it is contrasted with traditions of men.

105. Christian Tradition, according to the Bible, can be oral as well as written (2 Thess 2:15; 2 Tim 1:13-14; 2:2). St. Paul makes no qualitative distinction between the two forms.

106. The phrases "word of God" or "word of the Lord" in Acts and the epistles almost always refer to oral preaching, not to the Bible itself. Much of the Bible was originally oral (e.g., Jesus' entire teaching - He wrote nothing - St. Peter's sermon at Pentecost, etc.).

107. Contrary to many Protestant claims, Jesus didn't condemn all tradition any more than St. Paul did. E.g., Mt 15:3,6; Mk 7:8-9,13, where He condemns corrupt Pharisaical tradition only. He says "your tradition."

108. The Greek paradidomi, or "delivering" Christian, apostolic Tradition occurs in Lk 1:1-2; Rom 6:17; 1 Cor 11:23; 15:3; 2 Pet 2:21; Jude 3. Paralambano, or "receiving" Christian Tradition occurs in 1 Cor 15:1-2; Gal 1:9,12; 1 Thess 2:13.

109. The concepts of "Tradition," "gospel," "word of God," "doctrine," and "the Faith" are essentially synonymous, and all are predominantly oral. For example, in the Thessalonian epistles alone St. Paul uses 3 of these interchangeably (2 Thess 2:15; 3:6; 1 Thess 2:9,13 (cf. Gal 1:9; Acts 8:14). If Tradition is a dirty word, then so is "gospel" and "word of God".

110. St. Paul, in 1 Tim 3:15, states that the Church is the ground of truth, as in Catholicism.

111. Protestantism's chief "proof text" for sola Scriptura, 2 Timothy 3:16, fails, since it says that the Bible is profitable, but not sufficient for learning and righteousness. Catholicism agrees that it is great for these purposes, but not exclusively so, as in Protestantism. Secondly, when St. Paul speaks of "Scripture" here, the NT didn't yet exist (not definitively for over 300 more years), thus he is referring to the OT only. This would mean that the NT wasn't necessary for the rule of faith, if sola Scriptura were true, and if it were supposedly alluded to in this verse.

112. The above eleven factors being true, Catholicism maintains that all its Tradition is consistent with the Bible, even where the Bible is mute or merely implicit on a subject. For Catholicism, every doctrine need not be found primarily in the Bible, for this is Protestantism's principle of sola Scriptura. On the other hand, most Catholic theologians claim that all Catholic doctrines can be found in some fashion in the Bible, in kernel form, or by (usually. extensive) inference, and that the Bible is materially sufficient for salvation, if it was all one had (on a desert island or something).

113. As thoughtful evangelical scholars have pointed out, an unthinking sola Scriptura position (sometimes referred to as solo Scriptura) can turn into "bibliolatry," almost a worship of the Bible rather than God who is its Author. This mentality is similar to the Muslim view of Revelation, where no human elements whatsoever were involved. Sola Scriptura, rightly understood from a more sophisticated (e.g., Reformed) Protestant perspective, means that the Bible is the final authority in Christianity, not the record of all God has said and done, as many evangelicals believe.

114. Christianity is unavoidably and intrinsically historical. All the events of Jesus' life (incarnation, crucifixion, resurrection, ascension, etc.) were historical, as was the preaching of the apostles. Tradition, therefore, of some sort, is unavoidable, contrary to numerous shortsighted Protestant claims. This is true both for matters great (ecclesiology, trinitarianism, justification) and small (church budgets, type of worship music, lengths of sermons, etc.). Every denial of a particular tradition involves a bias (hidden or open) towards one's own alternate tradition (E.g., if all Church authority is spurned, even individualistic autonomy is a "tradition," which ought to be defended as a Christian view in some fashion).

115. Sola scriptura literally couldn't have been true, practically speaking, for most Christians throughout history, since the movable-type printing press only appeared in the mid-15th century. Preaching and oral Tradition, along with things like devotional practices, Christian holidays, church architecture and other sacred art, were the primary carriers of the gospel for 1400 years. For all these centuries, sola Scriptura would have been regarded as an absurd abstraction and impossibility.

116. Protestantism claims that the Catholic Church has "added to the Bible." The Catholic Church replies that it has merely drawn out the implications of the Bible (development of doctrine), and followed the understanding of the early Church, and that Protestants have "subtracted" from the Bible by ignoring large portions of it which suggest Catholic positions. Each side thinks the other is "unbiblical," but in different ways.

117. Sola Scriptura is Protestantism's "Achilles' Heel." Merely invoking sola Scriptura is no solution to the problem of authority and certainty as long as multiple interpretations exist. If the Bible were so clear that all Protestants agreed simply by reading it with a willingness to accept and follow its teaching, this would be one thing, but since this isn't the case by a long shot (the multiplicity of denominations), sola Scriptura is a pipe-dream at best. About all that all Protestants agree on is that Catholicism is wrong, or on doctrines with which they already agree with Catholicism. Of all Protestant ideas, the "clarity" or perspicuity of the Bible is surely one of the most absurd and the most demonstrably false.

118. Put another way, having a Bible does not render one's private judgment infallible. Interpretation is just as inevitable as tradition, and such individual interpretation is rife with one's own traditions, and prior theological biases, whether acknowledged or not. The Catholic Church therefore, is absolutely necessary in order for true authority to exist, and to prevent confusion, error, and division.

119. Catholicism doesn't regard the Bible as obscure, mysterious, and inaccessible, but it is vigilant to protect it from all arbitrary and aberrant exegesis (2 Pet 1:20, 3:16). The best Protestant traditions seek to do the same, but are inadequate and ineffectual since they are divided.

120. Protestantism has a huge problem with the canon of the NT. The disputes and disagreements concerning the exact books which constitute the NT lasted until 397 A.D., when the Council of Carthage spoke with finality, certainly proof that the Bible is not "self-authenticating," as Protestantism believes. Some sincere, devout, and learned Christians doubted the canonicity of some books which are now in the Bible, and others considered books as Scripture which were not at length included in the canon. St. Athanasius in 367 was the first to list all 27 books in the NT as Scripture.

121. The Council of Carthage, in deciding the canon of the entire Bible in 397, included the so-called "Apocryphal" books, which Protestants kicked out of the Bible (i.e., a late tradition). Prior to the 16th century Christians considered these books Scripture, and they weren't even separated from the others, as they are today in the Protestant Bibles which include them. Protestantism accepts the authority of this council for the NT, but not the OT, just as it arbitrarily and selectively accepts or denies other conciliar decrees, according to their accord with existing Protestant "dogmas" and biases.

122. Contrary to Protestant anti-Catholic myth, the Catholic Church has always revered the Bible, and hasn't suppressed it (it protested some Protestant translations, but Protestants have often done the same regarding Catholic versions and even various Protestant ones). This is proven by the laborious care of monks in protecting and copying manuscripts, and the constant translations into vernacular tongues (as opposed to the falsehoods about only Latin Bibles), among other plentiful and indisputable historical evidences. The Bible is a Catholic book, and no matter how much Protestants study it and proclaim it as peculiarly their own, they must acknowledge their undeniable debt to the Catholic Church for having decided the canon, and for preserving the Bible intact for 1400 years. How could the Catholic Church be "against the Bible," as anti-Catholics say, yet at the same time preserve and revere the Bible profoundly for so many years? The very thought is so absurd as to be self-refuting. If Catholicism is indeed as heinous as anti-Catholics would have us believe, Protestantism ought to put together its own Bible, instead of using the one delivered to them by the Catholic Church, as it obviously could not be trusted.

123. Protestantism denies the Sacrifice of the Mass, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Gen 14:18; Ps 110:4; Isa 66:18,21; Mal 1:11; Heb 7:24-5; 13:10; Rev 5:1-10; cf. 8:3; 13:8). Catholicism, it must be emphasized, doesn't believe that Jesus is sacrificed over and over at each Mass; rather, each Mass is a representation of the one Sacrifice at Calvary on the Cross, which transcends space and time, as in Rev 13:8.

124. Many Protestants disbelieve or distort beyond recognition, the development of doctrine, contrary to Christian Tradition and many implicit biblical indications. Whenever the Bible refers to the increasing knowledge and maturity of Christians individually and (particularly) collectively, an idea similar to development is present. Further, many doctrines develop in the Bible before our eyes ("progressive revelation"). Examples: the afterlife, the Trinity, acceptance of Gentiles. And doctrines which Protestantism accepts whole and entire from Catholicism, such as the Trinity and the canon of the Bible, developed in history, in the first three centuries of Christianity. It is foolish to try and deny this. The Church is the "Body" of Christ, and is a living organism, which grows and develops like all living bodies. It is not a statue, simply to be cleaned and polished over time, as many Protestants seem to think.

125. Protestantism separates justification from sanctification, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (e.g., Mt 5:20; 7:20-24; Rom 2:7-13; 1 Cor 6:11; 1 Pet 1:2).

126. Protestantism has a strong tendency of pitting faith against works (sola fide), which is a rejection of Christian Tradition and the explicit teaching of the Bible (Mt 25:31-46; Lk 18:18-25; Jn 6:27-9; Gal 5:6; Eph 2:8-10; Phil 2:12-13; 3:10-14; 1 Thess 1:3; 2 Thess 1:11; Heb 5:9; Jas 1:21-7; 2:14-16). These passages also indicate that salvation is a process, not an instantaneous event, as in Protestantism.

127. Protestantism rejects the Christian Tradition and biblical teaching of merit, or differential reward for our good deeds done in faith (Mt 16:27; Rom 2:6; 1 Cor 3:8-9; 1 Pet 1:17; Rev 22:12).

128. Protestantism's teaching of extrinsic, imputed, forensic, or external justification contradicts the Christian Tradition and biblical doctrine of infused, actual, internal, transformational justification (which includes sanctification): Ps 51:2-10; 103:12; Jn 1:29; Rom 5:19; 2 Cor 5:17; Heb 1:3; 1 Jn 1:7-9.

129. Many Protestants (especially Presbyterians, Calvinists and Baptists) believe in eternal security, or, perseverance of the saints (the belief that one can't lose his "salvation," supposedly obtained at one point in time). This is contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible: 1 Cor 9:27; Gal 4:9; 5:1,4; Col 1:22-3; 1 Tim 1:19-20; 4:1; 5:15; Heb 3:12-14; 6:4-6; 10:26,29,39; 12:14-15; 2 Pet 2:15,20-21; Rev 2:4-5.

130. Contrary to Protestant myth and anti-Catholicism, the Catholic Church doesn't teach that one is saved by works apart from preceding and enabling grace, but that faith and works are inseparable, as in James 1 and 2. This heresy of which Catholicism is often charged, was in fact condemned by the Catholic Church at the Second Council of Orange in 529 A.D. It is known as Pelagianism, the view that man could save himself by his own natural efforts, without the necessary supernatural grace from God. A more moderate view, Semi-Pelagianism, was likewise condemned. To continue to accuse the Catholic Church of this heresy suggests a manifest ignorance of the history of theology, as well as the clear Catholic teaching of the Council of Trent (1545-63), available for all to see. Yet the myth is strangely prevalent.

131. Protestantism has virtually eliminated the practice of confession to a priest (or at least a pastor), contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Mt 16:19; 18:18; Jn 20:23).

132. Protestantism disbelieves in penance, or temporal punishment for (forgiven) sin, over against Christian Tradition and the Bible (e.g., Num 14:19-23; 2 Sam 12:13-14; 1 Cor
11:27-32; Heb 12:6-8).

133. Protestantism has little concept of the Tradition and biblical doctrine of mortifying the flesh, or, suffering with Christ: Mt 10:38; 16:24: Rom 8:13,17; 1 Cor 12:24-6; Phil 3:10; 1 Pet 4:1,13.

134. Likewise, Protestantism has lost the Tradition and biblical doctrine of vicarious atonement, or redemptive suffering with Christ, of Christians for the sake of each other: Ex 32:30-32; Num 16:43-8; 25:6-13; 2 Cor 4:10; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 4:6.

135. Protestantism has rejected the Tradition and biblical doctrine of purgatory, as a consequence of its false view of justification and penance, despite sufficient evidence in Scripture: Is 4:4; 6:5-7; Micah 7:8-9; Mal 3:1-4; 2 Maccabees 12:39-45; Mt 5:25-6; 12:32; Lk 16:19-31 (cf. Eph 4:8-10; 1 Pet 3:19-20); 1 Cor 3:11-15; 2 Cor 5:10; Rev 21:27.

136. Protestantism has rejected (largely due to misconceptions and misunderstanding) the Catholic developed doctrine of indulgences, which is, simply, the remission of the temporal punishment for sin (i.e., penance), by the Church (on the grounds of Mt 16:19; 18:18, and Jn 20:23). This is no different than what St. Paul did, concerning an errant brother at the Church of Corinth. He first imposed a penance on him (1 Cor 5:3-5), then remitted part of it (an indulgence: 2 Cor 2:6-11). Just because abuses occurred prior to the Protestant Revolt (admitted and rectified by the Catholic Church), is no reason to toss out yet another biblical doctrine. Yet it is sadly typical of Protestantism to burn down a house rather than to cleanse it, to "throw the baby out with the bath water."

137. Protestantism has thrown out prayers for the dead, in opposition to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Tobit 12:12; 2 Maccabees 12:39-45; 1 Cor 15:29; 2 Tim 1:16-18; also verses having to do with purgatory, since these prayers are for the saints there).

138. Protestantism rejects, on inadequate grounds, the intercession of the saints for us after death, and the correspondent invocation of the saints for their effectual prayers (Jas 5:16). Christian Tradition and the Bible, on the other hand, have upheld this practice: Dead saints are aware of earthly affairs (Mt 22:30 w/ Lk 15:10 and 1 Cor 15:29; Heb 12:1), appear on earth to interact with men (1 Sam 28:12-15; Mt 17:1-3, 27:50-53; Rev 11:3), and therefore can intercede for us, and likewise be petitioned for their prayers, just as are Christians on earth (2 Maccabees 15:14; Rev 5:8; 6:9-10).

139. Some Protestants disbelieve in guardian angels, despite Christian Tradition and the Bible (Ps 34:7; 91:11; Mt 18:10; Acts 12:15; Heb 1:14).

140. Most Protestants deny angelic intercession, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Rev 1:4; 5:8; 8:3-4).

141. Protestantism rejects Mary's Immaculate Conception, despite developed Christian Tradition and indications in the Bible: Gen 3:15; Lk 1:28 ("full of grace" Catholics interpret, on linguistic grounds, to mean "without sin"); Mary as a type of the Ark of the Covenant (Lk 1:35 w/ Ex 40:34-8; Lk 1:44 w/ 2 Sam 6:14-16; Lk 1:43 w/ 2 Sam 6:9: God's Presence requires extraordinary holiness).

142. Protestantism rejects Mary's Assumption, despite developed Christian Tradition and biblical indications: If Mary was indeed sinless, she would not have to undergo bodily decay at death (Ps 16:10; Gen 3:19). Similar occurrences in the Bible make the Assumption not implausible or "unbiblical" per se (Enoch: Gen 5:24 w/ Heb 11:5; Elijah: 2 Ki 2:11; Paul: 2 Cor 12:2-4; the Protestant doctrine of the "Rapture": 1 Thess 4:15-17; risen saints: Mt 27:52-3).

143. Many (most?) Protestants deny Mary's perpetual virginity, despite Christian Tradition (including the unanimous agreement of the Protestant founders (Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, etc.), some Protestant support, and several biblical evidences, too involved to briefly summarize.

144. Protestantism denies Mary's Spiritual Motherhood of Christians, contrary to Christian Tradition and the Bible (Jn 19:26-7: "Behold thy mother"; Rev 12:1,5,17: Christians described as "her seed.") Catholics believe that Mary is incomparably more alive and holy than we are, hence, her prayers for us are of great effect (Jas 5:16; Rev 5:8; 6:9-10). But she is our sister with regard to our position of creatures vis-a-vis the Creator, God. Mary never operates apart from the necessary graces from her Son, and always glorifies Him, not herself, as Catholic theology stresses.

145. Protestantism rejects the papacy, despite profound Christian Tradition, and the strong evidence in the Bible of Peter's preeminence and commission by Jesus as the Rock of His Church. No one denies he was some type of leader among the apostles. The papacy as we now know it is derived from this primacy: Mt 16:18-19; Lk 22:31-2; Jn 21:15-17 are the most direct "papal" passages. Peter's name appears first in all lists of apostles; even an angel implies he is their leader (Mk 16:7), and he is accepted by the world as such (Acts 2:37-8,41). He works the first miracle of the Church age (Acts 3:6-8), utters the first anathema (Acts 5:2-11), raises the dead (Acts 9:40), first receives the Gentiles (Acts 10:9-48), and his name is mentioned more often than all the other disciples put together (191 times). Much more similar evidence can be found.

146. The Church of Rome and the popes were central to the governance and theological direction and orthodoxy of the Christian Church from the beginning. This is undeniable. All of the historical groups now regarded as heretical by Protestants and Catholics alike were originally judged as such by popes and/or ecumenical councils presided over and ratified by popes.

147. Protestantism, in its desperation to eke out some type of historical continuity apart from the Catholic Church, sometimes attempts to claim a lineage from medieval sects such as the Waldenses, Cathari, and Albigensians (and sometimes earlier groups such as the Montanists or Donatists). However, this endeavor is doomed to failure when one studies closely what these sects believed. They either retain much Catholic teaching anathema to Protestants or hold heretical notions antithetical to Christianity altogether (Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox), or both, making this Protestant theory quite dubious at best.

148. Catholic has the most sophisticated and thoughtful Christian socio-economic and political philosophy, a mixture of "progressive" and "conservative" elements distinct from the commonplace political rhetoric and Machiavellianism which typically dominate the political arena. Catholicism has the best view of church in relation to the state and culture as well.

149. Catholicism has the best Christian philosophy and worldview, worked out through centuries of reflection and experience. As in its theological reflection and development, the Catholic Church is ineffably wise and profound, to an extent truly amazing, and indicative of a sure divine stamp. I used to marvel, just before I converted, at how the Catholic Church could be so right about so many things. I was accustomed to thinking, as a good evangelical, that the truth was always a potpourri of ideas from many Protestant denominations and Catholicism and Orthodoxy (selected by myself), and that none "had it all together." But, alas, the Catholic Church does, after all.

150. Last but by no means least, Catholicism has the most sublime spirituality and devotional spirit, manifested in a thousand different ways, from the monastic ideal, to the heroic celibacy and pure devotion and service to God of the clergy and religious, the Catholic hospitals, the sheer holiness of a Thomas a Kempis or a St. Ignatius Loyola and their great devotional books, countless saints - both canonized and as yet unknown and unsung, Mother Teresa, Pope John Paul II, Pope John XXIII, the early martyrs, St. Francis of Assisi, the events at Lourdes and Fatima, the dazzling intellect of Venerable John Henry Cardinal Newman, the wisdom and insight of Archbishop Fulton Sheen, St. John of the Cross, the sanctified wit of a Chesterton or a Muggeridge, elderly women doing the Stations of the Cross or the Rosary, Holy Hour, Benediction, kneeling - the list goes on and on. This devotional spirit is, I humbly submit, unmatched in its scope and deepness, despite many fine counterparts in Protestant and Orthodox spirituality.