Wednesday, July 13, 2005

Possible References to the Deuterocanon (aka "Apocrypha") in John and Acts (RSV)

By Dave Armstrong (7-13-05)

Derived from pp. 800-804 of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 27th edition (Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine), published by Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft; see the web page from Catholic apologist Jimmy Akin, which reproduced the list. NT passages listed in Nestle-Aland will be in blue, and Deuterocanonical passages in red. Alleged references listed by verse only at the end were deemed (by myself) dissimilar and questionable or non-convincing enough to not reproduce.

[Bible passages were retrieved from the RSV Bible, with Apocrypha, from the University of Virginia Electronic Text Center]

Recently, a Reformed Protestant wondered aloud what the purpose of collecting these possible references would be (if not apologetic in nature, as some sort of "proof" of the canonicity of the Deuterocanonical or so-called "Apocryphal" books). I agree with Jimmy Akin's comments in the above-cited web page:

I get a lot of requests for a list of the references the New Testament makes to the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament. Unfortunately, giving a list is not such a simple affair since it is not always obvious whether something is a genuine reference.

Hebrews 11:35 is an indisputable reference to 2 Maccabees 7, but many are not so clear as there may be only a single phrase that echoes one in a deuterocanonical book (and this may not be obvious in the translation, but only the original languages).

This is the same with New Testament references to the protocanonical books of the Old Testament. How many New Testament references there are to the Old Testament depends in large measure on what you are going to count as a reference.

As a result, many scholarly works simply give an enormous catalogue of all proposed references and leave it to the individual interpreter to decide whether a given reference is actual or not.

I will follow the same procedure . . .
So will I. This project is not, strictly-speaking, an exercise in apologetics, but rather, an aid in Bible study or a Bible "reference" tool, as I explained in my reply to this "critic" (Part One / Part Two / Part Three).



1a) John 1:3

all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.

1b) Wisdom 9:1

"O God of my fathers and Lord of mercy, who hast made all things by thy word,

2a) John 3:8

The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit."

2b) Sirach 16:21

Like a tempest which no man can see, so most of his works are concealed.

3a) John 3:13

No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven, the Son of man.

3b) Baruch 3:29

Who has gone up into heaven, and taken her, and brought her down from the clouds?

4a) John 5:18

This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the sabbath but also called God his Father, making himself equal with God.

4b) Wisdom 2:16

We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father.

5a) John 7:38

He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, `Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.'"

5b) Sirach 24:30

I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden.

6a) John 8:53

Are you greater than our father Abraham, who died? And the prophets died! Who do you claim to be?"

6b) Sirach 44:19

Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations, and no one has been found like him in glory;

7a) John 10:20

Many of them said, "He has a demon, and he is mad; why listen to him?"

7b) Wisdom 5:4

"This is the man whom we once held in derision and made a byword of reproach -- we fools! We thought that his life was madness and that his end was without honor.

8a) John 14:15

"If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

8b) Wisdom 6:18

and love of her is the keeping of her laws, and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality,

9a) John 15:9s

As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you; abide in my love.

9b) Wisdom 3:9

Those who trust in him will understand truth, and the faithful will abide with him in love, because grace and mercy are upon his elect, and he watches over his holy ones.

10a) John 17:3

And this is eternal life, that they know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.

10b) Wisdom 15:3

For to know thee is complete righteousness, and to know thy power is the root of immortality.

11a) John 20:22

And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit.

11b) Wisdom 15:11

because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit.

See also (from Nestle-Aland list):
John 3:8 and Wisdom 18:15s
John 3:28 and 1 Maccabees 9:39
John 3:32 and Tobit 4:6
John 4:9 and Sirach 50:25s
John 4:48 and Wisdom 8:8
John 6:35 and Sirach 24:21
John 8:44 and Wisdom 2:24
John 10:22 and 1 Maccabees 4:59


1a) Acts 2:4
And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
1b) Sirach 48:12
It was Elijah who was covered by the whirlwind, and Elisha was filled with his spirit; in all his days he did not tremble before any ruler, and no one brought him into subjection.
2a) Acts 4:24
And when they heard it, they lifted their voices together to God and said, "Sovereign Lord, who didst make the heaven and the earth and the sea and everything in them,
2b) Judith 9:12
Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer!
3a) Acts 5:39
but if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow them. You might even be found opposing God!"
3b) 2 Maccabees 7:19
But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!"
4a) Acts 10:26
But Peter lifted him up, saying, "Stand up; I too am a man."
4b) Wisdom 7:1
I also am mortal, like all men, a descendant of the first-formed child of earth; and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh,
5a) Acts 10:34
And Peter opened his mouth and said: "Truly I perceive that God shows no partiality,
5b) Sirach 35:12s
Do not offer him a bribe, for he will not accept it; and do not trust to an unrighteous sacrifice; for the Lord is the judge, and with him is no partiality.
6a) Acts 10:36
You know the word which he sent to Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all),
6b) Wisdom 6:7
For the Lord of all will not stand in awe of any one, nor show deference to greatness; because he himself made both small and great, and he takes thought for all alike.
6c) Wisdom 8:3 etc.
She glorifies her noble birth by living with God, and the Lord of all loves her.
7a) Acts 17:26
And he made from one every nation of men to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their habitation,
7b) Wisdom 7:18
the beginning and end and middle of times, the alternations of the solstices and the changes of the seasons,
8a) Acts 17:27
that they should seek God, in the hope that they might feel after him and find him. Yet he is not far from each one of us,
8b) Wisdom 13:6
Yet these men are little to be blamed, for perhaps they go astray while seeking God and desiring to find him.
9a) Acts 17:29
Being then God's offspring, we ought not to think that the Deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, a representation by the art and imagination of man.
9b) Wisdom 13:10
But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of men's hands, gold and silver fashioned with skill, and likenesses of animals, or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.

See also (from Nestle-Aland list):

Acts 1:10 and 2 Maccabees 3:26
Acts 1:18 and Wisdom 4:19
Acts 2:11 and Sirach 36:7 (?)
Acts 2:29 and Sirach 24:32
Acts 5:2 and 2 Maccabees 4:32
Acts 5:12 and 1 Maccabees 12:6
Acts 5:21 and 2 Maccabees 1:10
Acts 9:1-29 and 2 Maccabees 3:24-40
Acts 9:2 and 1 Maccabees 15:21
Acts 9:7 and Wisdom 18:1

Acts 10:2 and Tobit 12:8
Acts 10:22 and 1 Maccabees 10:25, 11:30, 33 etc.
Acts 10:30 and 2 Maccabees 11:8
Acts 11:18 and Wisdom 12:19
Acts 12:5 and Judith 4:9
Acts 12:10 and Sirach 19:26 (?)
Acts 12:23 and Judith 16:17, Sirach 48:21, 1 Maccabees 7:41, and 2 Maccabees 9:9
Acts 13:10 and Sirach 1:30
Acts 13:17 and Wisdom 19:10
Acts 14:14 and Judith 14:16s
Acts 14:15 and Wisdom 7:3
Acts 15:4 and Judith 8:26
Acts 16:14 and 2 Maccabees 1:4
Acts 17:23 and Wisdom 14:20, 15:17
Acts 17:24, 25 and Tobit 7:17 (?), Wisdom 9:1,9
Acts 17:30 and Sirach 28:7
Acts 19:27 and Wisdom 3:17
Acts 19:28 and Daniel 14:18, 41
Acts 20:26 and Daniel 13:46
Acts 20:32 and Wisdom 5:5
Acts 20:35 and Sirach 4:31
Acts 21:26 and 1 Maccabees 3:49
Acts 22.9 and Wisdom 18.1
Acts 24:2 and 2 Maccabees 4:6
Acts 26:18 and Wisdom 5:5
Acts 26:25 and Judith 10:13 (?)

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