Thursday, May 27, 2004

Does My Luther Research Lack Proper Documentation?

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The late Jaroslav Pelikan: primary editor of the 55-volume collection Luther's Works

(Particularly Regarding Primary Material From the 55-volume Luther's Works)

This seems to be a rather common (but blatantly false) charge, circulating around places where my severest Protestant critics -- most of them anti-Catholic -- tend to hang out (because I have written many many papers on Martin Luther). I figured it was about time to put this to rest. Very few of these hostile critics are willing to actually confront me with concrete examples of my alleged shortcomings and "dishonesty," etc., (let alone discuss them intelligently in a public forum, such as my blog), so I will now positively demonstrate that this nonsense has no basis in fact.

Apparently, my work about Luther is frequently cited on various discussion boards (the critics are constantly harping on and on about that, so it must be true), and, as a result, the counter-charge is often made by some Protestants that I am not trustworthy as any sort of reputable source for Luther's beliefs, since I am an "apologist" and a Catholic, etc. So it is important to make a strong statement that my papers are copiously documented from Luther's own words and from Protestant historians and experts on Luther as well.

A related charge is the old canard about "quoting out of context" (always ready at hand when someone wants to dismiss a piece of evidence without having to do any serious work of refutation). But this cannot be disproven in an overview such as this. It has to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Again, only very rarely has anyone actually sought to demonstrate this with concrete example. Anyone is welcome to try. I challenge them, dare them, beg them to "put up or shut up." There is nothing to the charge. If someone is confident enough to produce some sort of rational argument along these lines, I will either refute the objection as groundless and at odds with the facts, or gratefully make a retraction.

For each paper, I will list the number of citations from Luther himself and from Protestant scholars (i.e., directly concerning Luther -- some papers have a wider subject matter), and note the sources. I won't even include Catholic scholars (even when they cite Luther's own words) because hostile critics (again, predominantly the anti-Catholic Protestants, as opposed to the fair-minded ecumenical ones) simply dismiss them as incorrigibly biased against Luther and therefore untrustworthy. This is not true, of course, but I am trying to think as these people do, and make an argument most effective for the purpose of countering their false (and often personally slanderous) charges.

* * * * *

"The Influence of William of Ockham and Nominalism on Martin Luther
and Early Protestant Thought" 205K

[only one section is directly about Luther; the paper is about how nominalism can be seen to be an influence on Luther, but not about the latter per se]

Primary Luther Sources

None

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church
Roland H. Bainton, Studies on the Reformation
Alister E. McGrath, Luther's Theology of the Cross

"The Protestant Revolt: Its Tragic Initial Impact" 162K

[contains a lot about Luther, as would be expected, but it is not specifically about him only, and it is from the early 90s, when I had a lot fewer Luther primary sources in my personal library than I do now]

Primary Luther Sources

Cited by Will Durant, The Reformation (5)
Cited by Giorgio de Santillana, The Age of Adventure
[+ a host of quotes cited in Catholic historians' sources]

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Preserved Smith, The Age of the Reformation (6)
Julius Kostlin, Life of Luther
Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christianity
Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther
Cross, F.L. & E.A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Adolf von Harnack: Liberal Theology at its Height, edited by Martin Rumscheidt
Will Durant, The Reformation (7)
E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art
Owen Chadwick, The Reformation (2)
Johan Huizinga, Erasmus and the Age of Reformation
A.G. Dickens, Reformation and Society in 16th-Century Europe (2)
R.H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (3)

Martin Luther's Violent, Inflammatory Rhetoric and its Relationship to the German Peasants' Revolt (1524-1525) 157K

Primary Luther Sources

Luther's Works (LW): Wider Hans Wurst, or Against Jack Sausage (1541), Vol. 41
LW: letter to Frederick, Elector of Saxony (7 March 1522), Vol. 45
LW: letter to Wenceslaus Link, 19 March 1522, Vol. 45
LW: Against the Spiritual Estate of the Pope and the Bishops Falsely So-Called (4 July 1522), Vol. 39
LW: Doctor Luther’s Bull and Reformation (1523), Vol. 39
LW: letter to Frederick, Elector of Saxony and Duke John of Saxony, July 1524, Vol. 40
LW: Against the Heavenly Prophets in the Matter of Images and Sacraments, Part I, December 1524, Vol. 40

[LW = Luther's Works, American edition, edited by Jaroslav Pelikan (vols. 1-30) and Helmut T.Lehmann (vols. 31-55), St. Louis: Concordia Pub. House (vols. 1-30); Philadelphia: Fortress Press (vols. 31-55), 1955]

Philadelphia Edition of Luther's Works (PE): Reply to the Answer of the Leipzig Goat [Jerome Emser, January 1521], Vol. III
PE: letter to Georg Spalatin, 16 January 1521, Vol. III
PE: Dr. Martin Luther's Answer to the Superchristian, Superspiritual, and Superlearned Book of Goat Emser of Leipzig, With a Glance at His Comrade Murner (March 1521), Vol. III
PE: An Earnest Exhortation for all Christians, Warning Them Against Insurrection and Rebellion (December 1521), Vol. III
PE: The Right and Power of a Christian Congregation or Community to Judge all Teaching and to Call, Appoint, and Dismiss Teachers, Established and Proved From Scripture (Spring 1523), Vol. IV
PE: Preface to an Ordinance of a Common Chest (Spring 1523), Vol. IV
PE: On Trade and Usury (June 1524), Vol. IV
PE: An Admonition to Peace: A Reply to the Twelve Articles of the Peasants in Swabia, May 1525, Vol. IV
PE: Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants, May 1525, Vol. IV
PE: An Open Letter Concerning the Hard Book Against the Peasants, July 1525, Vol. IV

[PE = Luther's Works, Philadelphia edition (6 volumes), edited and translated by C.M. Jacobs and A.T.W. Steinhaeuser et al, A.J. Holman Co., The Castle Press, and Muhlenberg Press, 1932]

Cited by Preserved Smith (PS), The Life and Letters of Martin Luther: letter to Georg Spalatin, February 1520
PS: letter to Gerard Listrius at Zwolle, 30 July 1520
PS: letter to John Lang at Erfurt, 18 August 1520
PS: letter to Georg Spalatin, 14 May 1521
PS: letter to Frederick, Elector of Saxony, 5 March 1522
PS: letter to Nicholas Hausmann at Zwickau, 17 March 1522
PS: letter to Frederick, Elector of Saxony and Duke John of Saxony, July 1524
PS: letter to John Ruhel at Mansfeld, 4 May 1525
PS: letter to Nicholas Amsdorf at Magdeburg, 30 May 1525
PS: letter to Albert, Archbishop and Elector of Mayence, 21 July 1525

Cited by Roland Bainton (RB), Here I Stand: On the Pope as an Infallible Teacher, or On the Papacy at Rome (25 June 1520)
RB: remarks from March 1521

Cited by Gordon Rupp (GR), Luther's Progress to the Diet of Worms: On the Pope as an Infallible Teacher, or On the Papacy at Rome
GR: letter to Georg Spalatin, 16 January 1521
GR: (unspecified correspondence)

Cited by Will Durant (WD), The Reformation: On the Pope as an Infallible Teacher, or On the Papacy at Rome
WD: letter to Wenceslaus Link, 19 March 1522

Cited by Philip Schaff (SCH), History of the Christian Church: On the Pope as an Infallible Teacher, or On the Papacy at Rome
SCH: Luther's Last Letter to the Pope; to Pope Leo X, 13 October 1520
SCH: second of eight sermons preached upon his return from the Wartburg, 10 March 1522

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Gordon Rupp, Luther's Progress to the Diet of Worms (2)
Will Durant, The Reformation (7)
Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church (3)
Roland Bainton, Here I Stand (6)
Preserved Smith, The Life and Letters of Martin Luther (4)
Preserved Smith, The Age of the Reformation
C.M. Jacobs (translator and editor, PE)
Owen Chadwick, The Reformation
Gunther Franz (Protestant?), Der Deutsche Bauernkrieg
James Mackinnon (Protestant?), Luther and the Reformation
Kyle C. Sessions (Protestant?), Reformation and Authority: The Meaning of the Peasant's Revolt
R.H. Murray, The Political Consequences of the Reformation; Studies in Sixteenth-Century Political Thought
Alister McGrath, Reformation Thought: An Introduction
H.G. Koenigsberger (Protestant?)
Harold J. Grimm
Joel Hurstfield (editor), The Reformation Crisis
Lewis W. Spitz (editor), The Reformation: Basic Interpretations

Counter-Reply: Martin Luther's Mariology (Particularly the Immaculate Conception) Has Present-Day Protestantism Maintained the "Reformational" Heritage of Classical Protestant Mariology? 152K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Commentary on the Magnificat, 1521, Vol. 21
LW: Against the Roman Papacy: An Institution of the Devil, 1545, Vol. 41
LW: comment by editor Jaroslav Pelikan, Vol. 21
LW: comment by editor Jaroslav Pelikan, Vol. 22

Project Wittenberg website: "Disputation On the Divinity and Humanity of Christ," February 27, 1540.

Cited by Eric W. Gritsch: "Disputation on the Divinity and Humanity of Christ," February 28, 1540.

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther (3)
Jaroslav Pelikan, Mary Through The Ages (4)
David Wright, Chosen by God: Mary in Evangelical Perspective (3)
Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics
Max Thurian, Mary: Mother of all Christians (4)
Friedrich Heiler (3)
Basilea Schlink, Mary, the Mother of Jesus
A. Lancashire, Born of the Virgin Mary
Heinrich Bullinger (3)
Peter Toon, "Appreciating Mary Today," in Chosen by God: Mary in Evangelical Perspective, edited by David F. Wright
Elliot Miller, "The Mary of Roman Catholicism," Christian Research Journal
John De Satge, "The Evangelical Mary," in Mary's Place in Christian Dialogue, edited by Alberic Stacpoole
Arthur Carl Piepkorn
Book of Concord, translated and edited by Theodore G. Tappert, in collaboration with Jaroslav Pelikan, Robert H. Fischer, and Arthur C. Piepkorn (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House / Muhlenberg Press, 1959) (4)
Heiko Oberman, The Harvest of Medieval Theology
Eric W. Gritsch, in The One Mediator, the Saints, and Mary, Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue VIII, edited by H. George Anderson, J. Francis Stafford, Joseph A. Burgess (12)
Panel of 12 Lutheran and 10 Catholic scholars, in the above book (4)
Richard Marius (Protestant?), Martin Luther: The Christian Between God and Death
W. Tappolet, Das Marienlob der Reformatoren

"The Protestant Inquisition ('Reformation' Intolerance and Persecution)" 117K

[like The Protestant Revolt, this also contains a lot about Luther, but is not specifically about him only, and it is also from the early 90s, when I had a lot fewer Luther primary sources in my personal library than I do now]

Primary Luther Sources

Cited by Will Durant, The Reformation (6)
PE (1)
(+ a host of primary citations from Catholics Janssen and Grisar)

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Preserved Smith, The Age of the Reformation (3)
Roland Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther
Cross, F.L. & E.A. Livingstone, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Walther Kohler, Reformation und Ketzerprozess
Karl Wappler, Die Inquisition
Johann Neander
Adolf von Harnack, History of Dogma
Dean William Inge
Will Durant, The Reformation (11)
A.G. Dickens, Reformation and Society in 16th-Century Europe (2)
Owen Chadwick, The Reformation
Kurt Reinhardt (Protestant?), Germany: 2000 Years
William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
August W. Hunzinger, Die Theol. der Gegenwart

Did Martin Luther Regard the (Roman) Catholic Church as a Non-Christian, Apostate Institution?: Featuring dozens of citations from Luther's own writings; particularly On the Councils and the Churches (1539) and Against Hans Wurst (1541) 74K

Primary Luther Sources

Luther's Works (LW): Wider Hans Wurst, or Against Jack Sausage (1541); Vol. 41 (19 citations; many quite lengthy)

Philadelphia Edition of Luther's works (PE): On the Councils and the Churches (1539). Vol. V: pp. 133-136, 264-265, 269, 272, 276-277, 284, 286, 289-292

Preserved Smith (PS), The Life and Letters of Martin Luther: letter to Philip Melanchthon at Schmalkalden: April 8, 1540
PS: letter to Philip Melanchthon at Ratisbon, April 4, 1541
PS: Pamphlet: How to Anoint a Right Christian Bishop, January, 1542
PS: Luther's First Will: Gotha, February 28, 1537
PS: Letter to Montanus About Erasmus, May 28, 1529

William Hazlitt, translator, Table-Talk (14)

Mark U. Edwards, Jr.: Luther's Last Battles: Politics and Polemics, 1531-1546 (extensive citations from Luther)

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Charles M. Jacobs (translator and editor of PE)
Mark U. Edwards, Jr.: Luther's Last Battles: Politics and Polemics, 1531-1546 (extensive citations)

Did Martin Luther Believe That Jesus Had Carnal Relations With Mary Magdalene and Others? 70K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Table-Talk (Spring 1532), Vol. 54
LW: Lectures on Galatians (1535), Vol. 26

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

WELS (Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod) Q & A page
Jaroslav Pelikan, in LW
Concordia Historical Institute (personal correspondence)
"Luther Quest Discussion Group" (6 citations)

Martin Luther the "Super-Pope" and de facto Infallibility: With Extensive Documentation From Luther's Own Words 68K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Against the Spiritual Estate of the Pope and the Bishops Falsely So-Called (July 1522) -- very extensive citation, from Vol. 39: pp. 247-249, 252-253, 262-263, 268-269, 273, 278-280, 283.

PE: An Argument in Defense of All the Articles of Dr. Martin Luther Wrongly Condemned in the Roman Bull (1521), Vol. III, pp. 12-14, 17
PE: Reply to the Answer of the Leipzig Goat (1521), Vol. III, pp. 293-294

Cited in Will Durant (WD), The Reformation: Against the Falsely So-Called Spiritual Estate of the Pope and Bishops (July 1522)
WD: miscellaneous

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Thomas Babington Macaulay

"The Ambiguous Relationship of Luther and the Early Protestants to St. Augustine" 55K

Primary Luther Sources

Table-Talk (translated by William Hazlitt) (3)
Edwin Tait: translation of a letter by Philip Melanchthon to Johann Brenz (May 1531), agreed-to by Luther

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Julius Kostlin, Martin Luther. Sein Leben und seine Schriften (2)
Michael J. Vlach, reviewing Alister E. McGrath's book, Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification (lengthy citation)
(http://www.theologicalstudies.org/mcgrath1.html)
Ted M. Dorman, "Justification as Healing: The Little-Known Luther," in online journal Quodlibet (lengthy citation, which includes a citation from Luther's Commentary on Galatians)
(http://www.quodlibet.net/dorman-luther.shtml)
Book of Concord (all mentions of St. Augustine looked up)

Was Corruption in the Medieval Papacy the Primary Cause of the Protestant Revolt? 44K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Against the Spiritual Estate of the Pope and the Bishops Falsely So-Called (July 1522), Vol. 39

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Preserved Smith, Reformation in Europe (2)
Owen Chadwick, The Reformation (2)

"Man-Centered" Sacramentalism: The Remarkable Incoherence of Dr. James White: How Can Martin Luther and St. Augustine Be Christians According to His Definition? 42K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520), Vol. 36
LW: Sermons on the Gospel of St. John, Chapters 1-4 (1540); Vol. 22 (2)
LW: Against the Heavenly Prophets in the Matter of Images and Sacraments (1525); Vol. 40
LW: unspecified utterance on the Eucharist; Vol. 37; cited by Paul Althaus
LW: Brief Confession Concerning the Holy Sacrament (September 1544); Vol. 38
Large Catechism (1529); translated by Dr. Lenker, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1935

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther
Roland Bainton, Here I Stand
Preserved Smith, The Age of the Reformation

The Irrational Antipathy of Luther, Calvin, and Other Protestants to Clerical Celibacy 42K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: The Estate of Marriage (1522); Vol. 45
PE: On the Councils and the Churches (1539); Vol. V

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None

"Contraception and the 'Fewer Children is Better' Mentality: the Opposition of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Other Protestants" 35K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Lectures on Genesis: Chapters 38-44 (1544); Vol. 7
LW: Lectures on Genesis: Chapters 1-5 (1536); Vol. 1
LW: Lectures on Genesis: Chapters 26-30; Vol. 5
LW: The Estate of Marriage (1522); Vol. 45
Cited by Ewald W. Plass, What Luther Says, an Anthology

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None

2 Corinthians 5:21: Was Jesus Christ Literally Made Sin on the Cross? Did He Suffer the Horrors of Damnation? Luther and Calvin vs. the Church Fathers 29K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Lectures on Genesis: Chapters 38-44 (1544); Vol. 7
Commentary on Galatians, translated by Erasmus Middleton (3)

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther (2)

Martin Luther's Doctrine Concerning Good Works: Have I Misrepresented It? 24K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: The Freedom of a Christian (1520); Vol. 44 (9)
LW: unspecified (on faith and works); Vol. 31

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther (2)

Dialogue: Martin Luther the "Super-Pope," de facto Infallibility, and Protestant Tradition: A Philosophical and Analogical "Turning the Tables" Argument in Reply to Certain Protestant Rhetoric Against the Papacy 23K

Primary Luther Sources

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None, as it was a discussion with Edwin Tait about the related, documented paper above.

The Orthodox vs. the Heterodox Luther 15K

Primary Luther Sources

(derived from Catholic Hartmann Grisar)

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None

"Luther, Calvin, and Other Early Protestants on the Perpetual Virginity of Mary " 14K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Sermons on John, chaps. 1-4 (1539); Vol. 22 (2)
LW: That Jesus Christ was Born a Jew (1523); Vol. 45 (2)

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

Max Thurian, Mary: Mother of all Christians
J.A. Ross MacKenzie
Jaroslav Pelikan, in LW

Martin Luther's Devotion to Mary 12K

Primary Luther Sources

LW: Sermons on John, chapters 1-4, (1539); Vol. 22 (3)
PE: On the Councils and the Church (1539); Vol. V

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None

Baptismal Regeneration: Luther, Wesley, and Anglicanism 6K

Primary Luther Sources

LW:The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520); Vol. 36
Large Catechism (1529); translated by Dr. Lenker, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1935

Secondary Protestant or Otherwise Not Known Catholic Scholarly Sources

None

Uploaded by Dave Armstrong on 24 February 2004.

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